Regional and Topical Anesthesia for Endotracheal Intubation

  • Ryan Philip Ellender
  • Shilpadevi S. Patil
  • Lien Tran
  • Scott M. Kleinpeter
  • Elyse M. Cornett
  • Alan David Kaye


Despite recent advancements in video and digital laryngoscopes, awake intubation continues to be an important modality for anesthesiologists to secure the airway. Awake intubation (AI) can be performed for a variety of conditions that can result in a difficult airway. Congenital anomalies involving the head and neck, tumors of the airway, morbid obesity, cervical spine pathology, and trauma associated with facial and cervical instability all make direct laryngoscopy challenging and can be indications for awake intubation.


Awake intubation Laryngoscopy Difficult tracheal intubation Topicalization Local anesthetic Transtracheal nerve block Trans laryngeal block 



The authors would like to acknowledge Valeriy V. Kozmenko, M.D. for the photography that appears in the chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryan Philip Ellender
    • 1
  • Shilpadevi S. Patil
    • 2
  • Lien Tran
    • 3
  • Scott M. Kleinpeter
    • 4
  • Elyse M. Cornett
    • 5
  • Alan David Kaye
    • 6
  1. 1.AnesthesiologyHilton Head Regional HealthcareHilton Head IslandUSA
  2. 2.Anesthesiology and Critical Care MedicineLouisiana State University Health Sciences Center—ShreveportShreveportUSA
  3. 3.Department of AnesthesiologyLouisiana State University Health Sciences CenterNew OrleansUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineLouisiana State University Health Sciences Center—New OrleansNew OrleansUSA
  5. 5.Department of AnesthesiologyLouisiana State University Health Sciences Center—ShreveportShreveportUSA
  6. 6.Department of AnesthesiologyLouisiana State University School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA

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