Equipment and Clinical Practice: Aids to Localization of Peripheral Nerves
Although advances in technology have allowed for various shortcuts in the identification of nerves, nerve location begins by identifying standard anatomical landmarks and understanding the anatomic variations which can exist. The recognition of fundamental anatomy can serve as a basis for subsequent invasive needle exploration, which has only been improved with newer tools that optimize precision and safety.
A successful endpoint can be reached through anatomy, functionally via a sensory paresthesia, via a motor response to electrical nerve stimulation (NS), and via ultrasonography (real-time imaging). Ultrasonography has gained the most popularity in recent years, but basic anatomic knowledge as well as concurrent nerve twitch stimulation can provide added information and success.
KeywordsPeripheral nerve stimulator Ultrasound Positioning devices Echogenic needles Echogenic catheters Skin preparation Twitch monitor
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