The Role of Biofilms in Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

  • Sara TorrettaEmail author
  • Lorenzo Pignataro


It has been estimated that more than 90% of bacteria live in biofilms. Biofilms represent a serious clinical concern because they are highly resistant to immune activity and conventional antibiotic treatments. Bacterial biofilms appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of various upper respiratory tract infections, including recurrent acute tonsillitis, chronic adenoiditis, chronic or recurrent middle ear inflammation, and chronic rhinosinusitis. In this chapter, we review new insights into biofilm-related upper respiratory tract infections and discuss possible therapies.


Biofilm Upper respiratory tract Infections Otitis Tonsillitis Rhinosinusitis 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Otolaryngological Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community HealthUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

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