The Transition of Women to Leadership in Post-secondary Institutions in Canada: An Examination of the Literature and the Lived DIM Experiences of Two Female Leaders
Authentic leadership is conceptualized as leadership that ‘makes things happen’ including but not limited to changes in vision, culture, and infrastructure. In this chapter, the authors explore how two women in mid-to-later career transition from practice to authentic leadership in post-secondary institutions in Canada. The chapter includes consideration of traditional and more contemporary understandings of leadership and how these ideas play out in universities and Colleges; differences between men and women regarding leadership and what they mean in the post-secondary sector; women’s experiences carrying out authentic leadership in academic settings including experiences of dissonance, incivility, and microaggression (DIM). DIM will be discussed as incongruence with personal expectations; expectations involving faculty and staff; expectations held by supervisors; environmental factors; and attitudes and behaviors that convey hostility or jealousy toward the female leader.
- Bian, L., Leslie, S.-J., & Cimpian, A. (2017a). Why young girls don’t think they are smart enough. The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/26/well/family/why-young-girls-dont-think-they-are-smart-enough.html?_r=1.
- Bilen-Green, C., Froelich, K. A., & Jacobson, S. W. (2008). The Prevalence of Women in Academic Leadership Positions, and Potential Impact on Prevalence of Women in the Professorial Ranks. 2008 WEPAN Conference Proceedings. Retrieved from https://www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/forward/documents/WEPAN2.pdf.
- Bruner, R. (2017). The three qualities that make a good dean. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved January 15, from http://www.chronicle.com/article/The-3-Qualities-that-Make-a/238883?cid=trend_right_h.
- Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
- Caplan, P. J. (1992). Lifting a Ton of Feathers: A Woman’s Guide to Surviving in the Academic World. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Carter, L. (2008). Perceptions of writing confidence, critical thinking, and writing competence among registered nurse-learners studying online. Canadian Journal of University Continuing Education, 34(2), 63–87.Google Scholar
- Ely, R. J., & Meyerson, D. E. (2000). Theories of gender in organizations: A new approach to organizational analysis and change. Research in Organizational Behavior, 22, 103–151. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-3085(00)22004-2.
- Fisher, V., & Fisher, G. (2007). ‘You need tits to get on around here’: Gender and sexuality in the entrepreneurial university in the 21st century [Special issue]. Ethnography, 8(4), 503–517. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24048095.
- Graban, M. (2012). Lean Hospitals: Improving Quality, Patient Safety, and Employee Engagement (2nd ed.). New York: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- Hannum, K. M., Muhly, S. M., Shockley-Zalabak, P. S., & White, J. S. (2015). Women leaders within higher education in the United States: Supports, barriers, and experiences of being a senior leader. Advancing Women in Leadership, 35, 65–75. Retrieved from http://awljournal.org/Vol35_2015/Hannum_Women_Leaders_within_Higher_Education2.pdf.
- Jaffe, E. (2014). The new subtle sexism toward women in the workplace. Fast Company. Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/3031101/the-new-subtle-sexism-toward-women-in-the-workplace.
- Jones, S. (2013). The ‘star’ academics are so often white and male. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/education/2013/apr/22/university-jobs-not-being-advertised.
- Katsinas, S. G. (1996). Preparing leaders for diverse institutional settings. New Directions for Community Colleges, 15–25. https://doi.org/10.1002/cc.36819969504.
- Kotter, J. (2013). Management is (still) not leadership. HHR Blog. Retrieved from http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/01/management-is-still-not-leadership/.
- Kruse, K. (2013). What is authentic leadership? Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2013/05/12/what-is-authentic-leadership/#5ddf732bdef7.
- Langland, E. (2012). Cultural narratives of academic leadership at the dawn of the 21st century. Forum on Public Policy, 1–9. Retrieved from http://forumonpublicpolicy.com/vol2012.no2/archive/langland.pdf.
- Laschinger, H. K., Wong, C. A., Cummings, G. G., & Grau, A. L. (2014). Resonant leadership and workplace empowerment: The value of positive organizational cultures in reducing workplace incivility. Nursing Economics, 32(1), 5–15.Google Scholar
- Little, W., & McGivern, R. (2014). Chapter 5. In Introduction to Sociology (1st Canadian ed.). Rice University (CC international license 4.1). Retrieved from https://opentextbc.ca/introductiontosociology/chapter/chapter5-socialization/.
- Morley, L. (2003). Quality and Power in Higher Education. The Society for Research into Higher Education. Maidenhead: Open University Press.Google Scholar
- Oakley, J. G. (2000). Gender-based barriers to senior management positions: Understanding the scarcity of female CEOs. Journal of Business Ethics, 27, 321–334. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1023%2FA%3A1006226129868.pdf.
- Sherwin, B. (2014). Why women are more effective leaders then men. Business Insider. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/study-women-are-better-leaders-2014-1.
- Sollman, K. (2012). How the definition of leadership is changing for women. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/85broads/2012/09/20/how-the-definition-of-leadership-is-changing-for-women/#64190c5a27a1.
- Striffolino, P., & Saunders, S. A. (1989). Emerging leaders: Students in need of development. NASPA Journal, 27(1), 51–58.Google Scholar
- Vessey, J. A., DeMarco, R. F., Gaffney, D. A., & Budin, W. C. (2009). Bullying of staff registered nurses in the workplace: A preliminary study for developing personal and organizational strategies for the transformation of hostile to healthy workplace environments. Journal of Professional Nursing, 25(5), 299–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zenger, J., & Folkman, J. (2012). Are women better leaders than men? Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2012/03/a-study-in-leadership-women-do.