Oil Dependency and Cold War Politics

  • David Cowan
Chapter

Abstract

Ahmed Zaki Yamani, the one-time oil minister, famously quipped that the Stone Age didn’t end because of a shortage of stone, meaning that the oil age, and certainly Saudi’s privileged position because of oil, will not end because of a shortage of oil but because of other factors (Quoted in Lippman, Saudi Arabia on the edge: the uncertain future of an American ally. Potomac Books, Dulles, 2012, p. 38). Concerns about 2030, and if not the end of the oil age at least a more competitive economic environment, are creating a dynamic of economic tension that will increasingly pervade government and society. To change requires a more international outlook, but does it mean Saudi needs to become more Western? Less Islamic? Saudi Arabia is attempting to establish a modern business culture while grappling with globalization’s challenges to Islamic teaching and social welfare values. Saudi political and business leaders are acutely aware that the Saudi economy needs, on the one hand, to diversify, while on the other needs to become more self-reliant, in terms of skills and resources. As a wealth creation resource, oil was found and extracted by foreigners. My reason for emphasizing this is that the Saudis basically had oil-based wealth handed to them on a platter. Compared to America, the nation that collaborated with the kingdom to create this oil-based economy, Saudis never developed a sense of pioneering for wealth or belief in the manifest destiny of national growth, and there was no Protestant work ethic. They have long relied on expat expertise and management, and it is only comparatively recently they have sought increased self-reliance. It is this conundrum of oil and the wealth curse, with the manner of welfare provision in Saudi, that goes to the heart of the needed change, and is responsible for the economic behaviors which go back to the first days of oil. The history of oil is inextricably bound with a political history of Saudi dominated by the relationship between America and Saudi to create the kind of economy Saudi has grown up with and still exists today.

Bibliography

  1. al-Rasheed, Madawi, ed. 2008. Kingdom Without Borders: Saudi Arabia’s Political, Religious and Media Frontiers. London: Hurst.Google Scholar
  2. Allawai, Ali A. 2009. The Crisis of Islamic Civilization. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Aburish, Said K. 2005. The Rise, Corruption and Coming Fall of the House of Saud. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, Irvine H. 1981. ARAMCO, the United States and Saudi Arabia: A Study of the Dynamics of Foreign Oil Policy 1933–1950. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Axworthy, Michael. 2008. A History of Iran: Empire of the Mind. New York: Perseus Books.Google Scholar
  6. Beisner, Robert L. 2009. Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Black, Antony. 2001. The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bronson, Rachel. 2006. Thicker Than Oil: America’s Uneasy Relationship with Saudi Arabia. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, Archie. 2009. The Rise and Fall of Communism. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  10. Cook, M.A., ed. 1970. Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Darlow, Michael, and Barbara Ibn Saud Bray. 2012. The Desert Warrior Who Created the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. Fawcett, Louise. 2016. International Relations of the Middle East. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Gause, F., III. 1994. Gregory Oil Monarchies: Domestic and Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf States. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.Google Scholar
  14. Halliday, Fred. 2000. Nation and Religion in the Middle East. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. ———. 2002. Arabia Without Sultans. London: Saqi Books.Google Scholar
  16. Haykel, Bernard, Thomas Hegghammer, and Stéphane Lacroix. 2015. Saudi Arabia in Transition: Insights on Social, Political, Economic and Religious Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Hegghammer, Thomas. 2010. Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism Since 1979. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hertog, Steffen. 2010. Princes, Brokers, and Bureaucrats Oil and the State in Saudi Arabia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hourani, Albert. 2002. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  20. House, Karen Elliott. 2012. On Saudi Arabia: Its People, Past, Religion, Fault Lines – And Future. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  21. Judis, John B. 2014. Genesis: Truman, American Jews, and the Origins of the Arab/Israeli Conflict. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.Google Scholar
  22. Karsh, Effraim. 2006. Islamic Imperialism: A History. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kepel, Gilles. 2004. The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West. Trans. Pascal Ghazaleh. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kerr, Malcolm. 1965. The Arab Cold War, 1958–1964: A Study of Ideology in Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 1971. The Arab Cold War: Gamal ‘Abd al-Nasir and His Rivals, 1958–1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Khalidi, Rashid. 2009. Sowing Crisis: The Cold War and American Dominance in the Middle East. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  27. Koya, Abdar Rahman, ed. 2010. Imam Khomeini: Life, Thought and Legacy. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust.Google Scholar
  28. Lacey, Robert. 2009. Inside the Kingdom: Kings, Clerics, Terrorists, Modernists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  29. Lackner, Helen. 1978. A House Built on Sand. A Political Economy of Saudi Arabia. London: Ithaca Press.Google Scholar
  30. Lewis, Bernard. 2002. The Arabs in History. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Lippman, Thomas W. 2012. Saudi Arabia on the Edge: The Uncertain Future of an American Ally. Dulles: Potomac Books.Google Scholar
  32. Little, Douglas. 2008. American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East Since 1945. 3rd ed. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  33. Louis, William Roger. 1984. The British Empire in the Middle East. 1945–1951. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Luciani, Giacomo, ed. 1990. The Arab State. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  35. Lynch, Timothy J., and Robert S. Singh. 2008. After Bush: The Case for Continuity in American Foreign Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Mabon, Simon. 2016. Saudi Arabia and Iran: Power and Rivalry in the Middle East. New York: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  37. Mansfield, Peter. 1985. The Arabs. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  38. Mattson, Kevin. 2010. What the Heck Are You Up To, Mr. President? New York: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  39. Miller, David Aaron. 1980. Search for Security: Saudi Arabian Oil and American Foreign Policy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  40. Mitchell, Timothy. 2013. Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  41. Patai, Raphael. 1973. The Arab Mind. New York: Scribner.Google Scholar
  42. Paterson, Thomas G. 1989. Kennedy’s Quest for Victory: American Foreign Policy, 1961–1963. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Pipes, Richard. 2001. Communism: A History. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  44. Ramazani, R.K., ed. 1990. Iran’s Revolution: The Search for Consensus. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Schwarz, Rolf. 2007. Rule, Revenue, and Representation. Oil and State Formation in the Middle East and North Africa. PhD Thesis, Graduate Institute of International Studies, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  46. Southern, R.W. 1978. Western Views of Islam in the Middle Ages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Stoflf, Michael B. 1980. Oil, War and American Security: The Search for a National Policy on Foreign Oil. 1941–1947. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Vitalis, Robert. 2009. America’s Kingdom: Mythmaking on the Saudi Oil Frontier. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  49. William, Roger Louis. 1984. The British Empire in the Middle East. 1945–1951. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  50. Yahya, Sadowski. 1993. Scuds or Butter? The Political Economy of Arms Control in the Middle East. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  51. Yaqub, Salim. 2004. Containing Arab Nationalism: The Eisenhower Doctrine and the Middle East. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  52. Yergin, Daniel. 1993. The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil Money & Power. New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Cowan
    • 1
  1. 1.Boston CollegeBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations