The Environmental Benefits Arising from the Use of Algae Biomass in Industry

  • Małgorzata MironiukEmail author
  • Katarzyna Chojnacka
Part of the Developments in Applied Phycology book series (DAPH, volume 8)


The replacement of nonrenewable raw materials with renewables is a strategy that has gained much attention in the face of high-energy consumption and increasing CO2 emissions. The introduction of algae biomass into industry could contribute to solving some of the main challenges that modern society faces: energy security, precarious water and food supplies, and climate change. Algae are considered as potential feedstock candidates for many products, such as food, feed, biofuels, biofertilizers, and cosmetics. Goods obtained from algae biomass are considered sustainable, renewable, and environmentally friendly, as they are generally formed through photosynthesis and use atmospheric CO2 and sunlight to produce oxygen and high-energy carbonaceous compounds (i.e., biomass) that can be transformed into valuable products. They can be produced locally on non-arable lands. An additional benefit of the application of algae is their productivity rates, which are higher than those of terrestrial biomass, such as corn. It has been suggested that wastewaters and wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients may be used in place of freshwater and fertilizers in algae cultivation. Thus, the utilization of waste and wastewaters to cultivate algae could simultaneously solve the problems of freshwater demand, the high cost of nutrients, and the need to remediate waste.


Renewable energy Wastewater treatment Climate change Algae industry Environmentally friendly technologies 


  1. Abdel-Raouf N, Al-Homaidan AA, Ibraheem IBM (2012) Microalgae and wastewater treatment. Saudi J Biol Sci 19(3):257–275CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdi O, Kazemi M (2015) A review study of biosorption of heavy metals and comparison between different biosorbents. J Mater Environ Sci 6(5):1386–1399Google Scholar
  3. Aksu Z (2002) Determination of the equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the batch biosorption of nickel (II) ions onto Chlorella vulgaris. Process Biochem 38(1):89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anastopoulus I, Kyzas GZ (2015) Progress in batch biosorption of heavy metals onto algae. J Mol Liq 209:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aziz HA, Adlan MN, Ariffin KS (2008) Heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr(III)) removal from water in Malaysia: post treatment by high quality limestone. Bioresour Technol 99(6):1578–1583CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartsch AF (1961) Algae as a source of oxygen in waste treatment. J Water Pollut Control Fed 33(3):239–249Google Scholar
  7. Beardall J, Raven JA (2016) Carbon acquisition by microalgae. In: Borowitzka MA, Beardall J, Raven JA (eds) The physiology of microalgae. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 89–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beema Jainab SI, Subramanian VV, Sivasubramanian V (2014) Study of bicarbonate tolerance by micro algae and possible application in CO2 sequestration. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 3(7):1062–1071Google Scholar
  9. Bellinger EG, Sigee DC (2015) Freshwater algae: identification, enumeration and use as bioindicators. Wiley, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bharti PK (2012) Heavy metals in environment. Lambert Academic Publishing, SaarbruckenGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhatnagar A, Chinnasamy S, Singh M, Das KC (2011) Renewable biomass production by mixotrophic algae in the presence of various carbon sources and wastewaters. App Energy 88:3425–3431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhattacharjee M, Siemann E (2015) Low algal diversity systems are a promising method for biodiesel production in wastewater fed open reactors. Algae 30(1):67–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhola V, Swalaha, Kumar RR, Singh M, Bux F (2014) Overview of the potential of microalgae for CO2 sequestration. Int J Environ Sci Technol 11:2103–2118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bielczyńska A (2015) Bioindication on the basis of benthic diatoms: advantages and disadvantages of the Polish phytobenthos lake assessment method (IOJ – the diatom index for lakes). Environ Prot Nat Res. 26 4(66):48–55Google Scholar
  15. Bixler HJ, Porse H (2011) A decade of change in the seaweed hydrocolloids industry. J Appl Phycol 23:321–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blinn DW, Herbst DB (2003) Use of diatoms and soft algae as indicators of environmental determinants in the Lahontan Basin, USA. Annual report for California State water resources board contract agreement 704558.01.CT766, p 1–25Google Scholar
  17. Boonchai R, Seo GT, Park DR, Seong CY (2012) Microalgae photobioreactor for nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater of sewage treatment plant. Int J Biosci Biochem Bioinforma 2(6):407–410Google Scholar
  18. Brierley AS, Kingsford MJ (2009) Impacts of climate change on marine organisms and ecosystems. Curr Biol 19:R602–R614CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cai T, Park SY, Li Y (2013) Nutrient recovery from wastewater streams by microalgae: status and prospects. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 19:360–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chatterjee A, Abraham J (2015) Biosorption capacity of dried spirogyra on heavy metals. Int J ChemTech Res 8(9):387–392Google Scholar
  21. Chen JP, Yang L (2005) Chemical modification of Sargassum sp. for prevention of organic leaching and enhancement of uptake during metal biosorption. Ind Eng Chem Res 44:9931–9942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen G, Zhao L, Qi Y (2015) Enhancing the productivity of microalgae cultivated in wastewater toward biofuel production: a critical review. Appl Energy 137(1):282–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Choi HJ, Lee SM (2012) Effects of microalgae on the removal of nutrients from wastewater: various concentrations of Chlorella vulgaris. Environ Eng Res 17(S1):3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cuellar-Bermudez SP, Aleman-Nava GS, Chandra R, Garcia-Perez SG, Contreras-Angulo JR, Markou G, Muylaert K, Rittmann BE, Parra-Saldivar (2017) Nutrients utilization and contaminants removal. A review of two approaches of algae and cyanobacteria in wastewater. Algal Res 24:438–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis R, Aden A, Pienkos PT (2011) Techno-economic analysis of autotrophic microalgae for fuel production. Appl Energy 88(10):3524–3531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Off J Eur Communities L 327/1 of 22.12.2000, p 72Google Scholar
  27. Dixit S, Singh P (2014) An evaluation of phycoremediation potential of cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum: characterization of heavy metal removal efficiency. J Appl Phycol 26:1331–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Farias DR, Hurd CL, Eriksen RS, Simioni C, Schmidt E, Bouzon ZL, Macleod CK (2017) In situ assessment of Ulva australis as a monitoring and management tool for metal pollution. J Appl Phycol 29(5):2489–2502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fetscher AE, Stancheva R, Kociolek JP, Sheath RG, Stein ED, Mazor RD, Ode PR, Busse LB (2014) Development and comparison of stream indices of biotic integrity using diatoms vs. non-diatom algae vs. a combination. J Appl Phycol 26(1):433–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fu F, Wang Q (2011) Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review. J Environ Manag 92(3):407–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2008a) Biosorption of lead(II) from aqueous solutions by non-living algal biomass Oedogonium sp. and Nostoc sp.—a comparative study. Colloid Surf B 64(2):170–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2008b) Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of cadmium(II) biosorption by nonliving algal biomass Oedogonium sp. from aqueous phase. J Hazard Mater 153(1–2):759–766CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2008c) Biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions by green algae Spirogyra species: kinetics and equilibrium studies. J Hazard Mater 152:407–414CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2008d) Sorption and desorption studies of chromium (VI) from nonviable cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum biomass. J Hazard Mater 154:347–354CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gupta VK, Rastogi A (2009) Biosorption of hexavalent chromium by raw and acid-treated green alga Oedogonium hatei from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 163:396–402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gupta VK, Srivastava AK, Jain N (2001) Biosorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by green algae Spirogyra species. Water Res 35:4079–4085CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gupta VK, Rastogi A, Saini VK, Jain N (2006) Biosorption of copper (II) from aqueous solutions by algae Spirogyra species. J Colloid Interface Sci 96:59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gupta VK, Rastogi A, Nayak A (2010) Biosorption of nickel onto treated alga (Oedogonium hatei): application of isotherm and kinetic models. J Colloid Interface Sci 342:533–539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gupta VK, Nayak A, Agarwal S (2015) Bioadsorbents for remediation of heavy metals: current status and their future prospects. Environ Eng Res 20(1):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harun R, Singh M, Forde GM, Danquah MK (2010) Bioprocess engineering of microalgae to produce a variety of consumer products. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 14(3):1037–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. He J, Chen JP (2014) A comprehensive review on biosorption of heavy metals by algal biomass: materials, performances, chemistry, and modeling simulation tools. Bioresour Technol 160:67–78CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Henkanatte-Gedera SM, Selvaratnam T, Karbakhshravari M, Myint M, Nirmalakhandan N, Van Voorhies W, Lammers PJ (2017) Removal of dissolved organic carbon and nutrients from urban wastewaters by Galdieria sulphuraria: laboratory to field scale demonstration. Algal Res 24:450–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Herrero R, Lodeiro P, Rey-Castro C, Vilariño T, Sastre de Vicente ME (2005) Removal of inorganic mercury from aqueous solutions by biomass of the marine macroalga Cystoseira baccata. Water Res 239:3199–3210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Herrero R, Cordero B, Lodeiro P, Rey-Castro C, Sastre de Vicente ME (2006) Interaction of cadmium (II) and protons with dead biomass of marine algae Fucus sp. Mar Chem 99:106–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Horvathova H, Kadukova J, Stofko M (2009) Biosorption of Cu2+ and Zn2+ by immobilized algae biomass of chlorella kessleri. Acta Metall Slovaca 15(4):255–263Google Scholar
  46. Huang S, Lin G (2015) Biosorption of Hg(II) and Cu(II) by biomass of dried Sargassum fusiforme in aquatic solution. J Environ Health Sci Eng 13:21–28CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Ibañez E, Cifuentes A (2013) Benefits of using algae as natural sources of functional ingredients. J Sci Food Agric 93:703–709CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ismail A, Marzuki SD, Yusof NBM, Buyong F, Said MNM, Sigh HR, Zulkifli AR (2017) Epiphytic terrestrial algae (Trebouxia sp.) as a biomarker using the free-air-carbon dioxide-enrichment (FACE) system. Biol (Basel) 6(1):19–25Google Scholar
  49. Javanbakht V, Alavi SA, Zilouei H (2014) Mechanisms of heavy metal removal using microorganisms as biosorbent. Water Sci Technol 69(9):1775–1787CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jorquera O, Kiperstok A, Sales EA, Embiruçu M, Ghirardi ML (2010) Comparative energy life-cycle analyses of microalgal biomass production in open ponds and photobioreactors. Bioresour Technol 101(4):1406–1413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Junzhuo L, Danneels B, Vanormelingen P, Vyverman W (2016) Nutrient removal from horticultural wastewater by benthic filamentous algae Klebsormidium sp., Stigeoclonium spp. and their communities: from laboratory flask to outdoor Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS). Water Res 92:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kanchana S, Jeyanthi J, Kathiravan R, Suganya K (2014) Biosorption of heavy metals using algae: a review. Int J of Pharm Med Biol Sci 3(2):1–9Google Scholar
  53. Kelly MG, Whitton BA (1995) The trophic diatom index: a new index for monitoring eutrophication in rivers. J Appl Phycol 7(4):433–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kim S, Park SR, Kang YH, Kim G-Y, Lee K-S, Lee HJ, Won N-I, Kil H-J (2014) Usefulness of tissue nitrogen content and macroalgal community structure as indicators of water eutrophication. J Appl Phycol 26(2):1149–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kligerman DC, Bouwer EJ (2015) Prospects for biodiesel production from algae-based wastewater treatment in Brazil: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 52:1834–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kumar A, Das A, Goel M, Kumar KR, Subramanyam B, Sudarsan JS (2013) Recovery of nutrients from wastewater by struvite crystallization. Nat Environ Pollut Techol 12(3):479–482Google Scholar
  57. Kumar KS, Dahms HU, Won EJ, Lee JS, Shin KH (2015) Microalgae – a promising tool for heavy metal remediation. Ecotox Environ Safe 113:329–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kushwah A, Srivastav JK (2015) Biosorption of copper ions by green algae spirogyra. Int J Chem Stud 3(3):36–38Google Scholar
  59. Laurens LML, Chen-Glasser M, McMillan JD (2017) A perspective on renewable bioenergy from photosynthetic algae as feedstock for biofuels and bioproducts. Algal Res 24:261–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lesmana SO, Febriana N, Soetaredjo FE, Sunarso J, Ismadji S (2009) Studies on potential applications of biomass for the separation of heavy metals from water and wastewater. Biochem Eng J 44(1):19–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lu Q, Zhou W, Min M, Ma X, Chandra C, Doan Y, Ma Y, Zheng H, Cheng S, Griffith R, Chen P, Chen C, Urriola PE, Shurson GC, Gislerød HR, Ruan R (2015) Growing Chlorella sp. on meat processing wastewater for nutrient removal and biomass production. Bioresour Technol 198:189–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Luo S, Berges JA, He Z, Young EB (2017) Algal-microbial community collaboration for energy recovery and nutrient remediation from wastewater in integrated photobioelectrochemical systems. Algal Res 24(B):527–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Morales-Sánchez D, Martinez-Rodriguez OA, Martinez A (2016) Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae: production of metabolites of commercial interest. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 92(5):925–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nascimento IA, Dominguez Cabanelas IT, Nunes dos Santos J, Nascimento MA, Sousa L, Sansone G (2015) Biodiesel yields and fuel quality as criteria for algal-feedstock selection: effects of CO2-supplementation and nutrient levels in cultures. Algal Res 8:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nguyen TAH, Ngo HH, Guo WS, Zhang J, Liang S, Yue QY, Li Q, Nguyen TV (2013) Applicability of agricultural waste and by-products for adsorptive removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresour Technol 148:574–585CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Omar WMW (2010) Perspectives on the use of algae as biological indicators for monitoring and protecting aquatic environments, with special reference to Malaysian freshwater ecosystems. Trop Life Sci Res 21(2):51–67PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Oswald WJ (1988) Micro-algae and waste-water treatment. In: Borowitzka MA, Borowitzka LJ (eds) Micro-algal biotechnology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 305–328Google Scholar
  68. Oswald WJ (2003) My sixty years in applied algology. J Appl Phycol 15(2):99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Oswald WJ, Gotaas HB, Golueke CG, Kellen WR, Gloyna EF, Hermann ER (1957) Algae in waste treatment. Sew Ind Waste 29(4):437–457Google Scholar
  70. Panayotidis P, Montesanto B, Orfanidis S (2004) Use of low-budget monitoring of macroalgae to implement the European Water Framework Directive. J Appl Phycol 16(1):49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Perez-Garcia O, Escalante FME, de Bashan LE, Bashan Y (2011) Heterotrophic cultures of microalgae: metabolism and potential products. Water Res 45:11–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Pires JCM (2017) COP21: the algae opportunity? Renew Sustain Energy Rev 79:867–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pires JCM, Gonçalves AL, Martins FG, Alvim-Ferraz MCM, Simões M (2014) Effect of light supply on CO2 capture from atmosphere by Chlorella vulgaris and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Mitig Adapt Strat Gl 19:1109–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Prasher S, Hawri J, Bera P, Patel RM, Kim SH (2004) Biosorption of heavy metals by red algae (Palmaria palmata). Environ Technol 25(10):1097–1106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Prussi M, Buffi M, Casini D, Chiaramonti D, Martelli F, Carnevale M, Tredici MR, Rodolfi L (2014) Experimental and numerical investigations of mixing in raceway ponds for algae cultivation. Biomass Bioenergy 67:390–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ravindran B, Gupta SK, Cho WM, Kim JK, Lee SR, Jeong KH, Lee DJ, Choi HC (2016) Microalgae potential and multiple roles—current progress and future prospects—an overview. Sustainability 8(12):1215. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rawat I, Kumar R, Mutanda T, Bux F (2011) Dual role of microalgae: Phycoremediation of domestic wastewater and biomass production for sustainable biofuels production. Appl Energy 88(10):3411–3424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Richards RG, Mullins BJ (2013) Using microalgae for combined lipid production and heavy metal removal from leachate. Ecol Model 249:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Romera E, Gonzalez F, Ballester A, Blázquez ML, Muñoz JA (2007) Comparative study of biosorption of heavy metals using different types of algae. Bioresour Technol 98(17):3344–3353CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rosset S, A’Angelo C, Wiedenmann J (2015) Ultrastructural biomarkers in symbiotic algae reflect the availability of dissolved inorganic nutrients and particulate food to the reef coral Holobiont. Front Mar Sci 2:103. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ruiz-Marin A, Mendoza-Espinosa LG, Stephenson T (2010) Growth and nutrient removal in free and immobilized green algae in batch and semi-continuous cultures treating real wastewater. Bioresour Technol 101(1):58–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sayre R (2010) Microalgae: the potential for carbon capture. Bioscience 60(9):722–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shalaby E (2011) Algae as promising organisms for environment and health. Plant Signal Behav 6(9):1338–1350CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Singh RN, Sharma S (2012) Development of suitable photobioreactor for algae production – a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16(4):2347–2353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Singh SP, Singh P (2014) Effect of CO2 concentration on algal growth: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 38:172–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Solisio C, Lodi A, Soletto D, Converti A (2008) Cadmium biosorption on Spirulina platensis biomass. Bioresour Technol 99:5933–5937CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Stancheva R, Sheath RG (2016) Benthic soft-bodied algae as bioindicators of stream water quality. Knowl Manag Aquat Ecosyst 417:15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Suzuki Y, Kametani T, Maruyama T (2005) Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by nonliving Ulva seaweed as biosorbent. Water Res 39:1803–1808CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Tchounwou PB, Yedjou CG, Patlolla AK, Sutton DJ (2012) Heavy metal toxicity and the environment. In: Luch A (ed) Molecular, clinical and environmental toxicology, Environmental Toxicology, vol 3. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 133–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Torres MA, Barros MP, Campos SCG, Pinto E, Rajamani S, Sayre RT, Colepicolo P (2008) Biochemical biomarkers in algae and marine pollution: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 71(1):1–15CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Unc A, Camargo-Valero MA, Smith SR (2017) Algal research, special issue editorial: wastewater and algae; risk, biofuels and long-term sustainability. Algal Res 24(B):A1. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Vijayaraghavan K, Padmesh TVN, Palanivelu K, Velan M (2006) Biosorption of nickel(II) ions onto Sargassum wightii: application of two-parameter and three-parameter isotherm models. J Hazard Mater 133:304–308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Vilar VJP, Botelho CMS, Boaventura RAR (2006) Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of Cd(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium and agar extraction algal waste. Water Res 40:291–302CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Volterra L, Conti ME (2000) Algae as biomarkers, bioaccumulators and toxin producers. Int J Environ Pollut 13:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Walker DA (2009) Biofuels, facts, fantasy and feasibility. J Appl Phycol 21:508–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wang M, Kuo-Dahab WC, Dolan S, Park C (2014) Kinetics of nutrient removal and expression of extracellular polymeric substances of the microalgae, Chlorella sp. and Micractinium sp., in wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol 154:131–137CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Wang B, Wen JL, Sun SL, Wang HM, Wang SF, Liu QY, Charlton A, Sun RC (2017) Chemosynthesis and structural characterization of a novel lignin-based bio-sorbent and its strong adsorption for Pb(II). Ind Crop Prod 108:72–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. World Bank (2016) World development indicators 2016. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, DC. 20433, pp 1–54Google Scholar
  99. World Bank (2017) World development indicators 2017. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, DC. 20433, pp 1–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. World Bank Open Data (2017) Searched on 20 June 2017
  101. WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme) (2017) The United Nations world water development report 2017, Wastewater: The Untapped Resource. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  102. Zhang F, Li J, He ZA (2014) A new method for nutrients removal and recovery from wastewater using a bioelectrochemical system. Bioresour Technol 166:630–634CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Advanced Material TechnologiesWrocław University of Science and TechnologyWrocławPoland

Personalised recommendations