Whiteness and Racialization

  • Nasar MeerEmail author
Part of the Approaches to Social Inequality and Difference book series (ATSIAD)


On the basis of the book chapters, this concluding chapter takes up some of key junctures and challenges either dealt with directly or lingering on. The chapter argues for more empirical and theoretical sensitivity to historical contexts of whiteness but without losing sight of the perspective on power and racial discourse formation it offers. Second, the chapter takes up the differences and overlapping between whiteness and white people, and argues for the inclusion of nuances that sees white marginalities within whiteness as well as nonwhite reinforcements of white privileges. Finally, the chapter argues that the racialization of Muslims as an older phenomenon but new in the field of racism—a type of racism that includes inferiorization but also some new forms of interrelationship with different and coexisting forms of subordination.


Racialization Whiteness Islamophobia 


  1. Allen, C., & Nielsen, J. S. (2002). Summary Report on Islamophobia in the EU15 after 11 September 2001. Vienna: European Monitoring Centre for Racism and Xenophobia.Google Scholar
  2. Bonnett, A. (1997). Geography, ‘Race’ and Whiteness: Invisible Traditions and Current Challenges. In P. Werbner & T. Modood (Eds.), Debating Cultural Hybridity: Multi-Cultural Identities and the Politics of Anti-Racism. London: Zed Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bonnett, A. (2008). Whiteness and the West. In C. Dwyer & C. Bressey (Eds.), New Geographies of Race and Racism. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  4. Bunzl, M. (2005). Between Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia: Some Thoughts on the New Europe. American Ethnologist, 32(4), 499–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Duster, T. (2001). The ‘Morphing’ of Properties of Whiteness. In B. B. Rasmussen, E. Klinenberg, I. Nexica, & M. Wray (Eds.), The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness (pp. 113–137). Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Dyre, R. (1988). White. Screen, 29(4), 44–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Field, C. D. (2007). Islamophobia in Contemporary Britain: The Evidence of the Opinion Polls, 1988–2006. Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, 18(4), 447–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Frankenberg, R. (2001). The Mirage of an Unmarked Whiteness. In B. Rasmussen et al. (Eds.), The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness (pp. 72–96). Durham & London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Garner, S. (2006). The Uses of Whiteness: What Sociologists Working on Europe Can Draw from US Work on Whiteness. Sociology, 40(2), 257–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Garner, S. (2017). Surfing the Third Wave of Whiteness Studies: Reflections on Twine and Gallagher. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40(9), 1582–1597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gillborn, D. (2005). Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform. Journal of Education Policy, 20(4), 485–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hage, G. (1998). White Nation: Fantasies of White Supremacy in a Multicultural society. Annandale: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  13. Hewitt, R. (2005). White Backlash and the Politics of Multiculturalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jacobson, M. F. (2009). Looking Jewish, Seeing Jews. In L. Back & J. Solomos (Eds.), Theories of Race and Racism (pp. 238–256). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Kidd, B. (1894). Social Evolution. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. Kidd, B. (1902). Principles of Western Civilization. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  17. Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Just What Is Critical Race Theory and What’s It Doing in a Nice Field Like Education? Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(1), 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leonardo, Z. (2002). The Souls of White Folk: Critical Pedagogy, Whiteness Studies, and Globalization Discourse. Race Ethnicity and Education, 5(1), 29–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lipsitz, G. (1998). The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  20. McDermott, M. (2006). Working-Class White: The Making and Unmaking of Race Relations. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  21. McIntosh, P. (1988). White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women’s Studies. Working Paper #189, Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, Wellesley, MA.Google Scholar
  22. Meer, N. (2012). Misrecognising Muslim Consciousness in Europe. Ethnicities, 12(2), 178–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meer, N., Dwyer, C., & Modood, T. (2010). Embodying Nationhood? Conceptions of British National Identity, Citizenship and Gender in the ‘Veil Affair’. The Sociological Review, 58(1), 84–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Miles, R. (1989). Racism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Mishra, P. (2012). From the Ruins of Empire. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  26. Nayak, A. (2003a). ‘Ivory Lives’: Economic Restructuring and the Making of Whiteness in a Post-Industrial Youth Community. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 6(3), 305–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nayak, A. (2003b). Last of the ‘Real Geordies’? White Masculinities and the Subcultural Response to Deindustrialisation. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 21(1), 7–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nayak, A. (2011). Geography, Race and Emotions: Social and Cultural Intersections. Social and Cultural Geography, 12(6), 548–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Neal, S. (2009). Rural Identities: Ethnicity and Community in the English Countryside. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  30. Pearson, C. (1894). National Life and Character: A Forecast. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  31. Pew. (2016). Europeans Fear Wave of Refugees Will Mean More Terrorism, Fewer Jobs. Pew Global Attitudes. Retrieved from
  32. Preston, J., & Chadderton, C. (2012). Rediscovering ‘Race Traitor’: Towards a Critical Race Theory Informed Public Pedagogy. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 15(1), 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rhodes, J. (2013). Remaking Whiteness in the “Postracial” UK. In N. Kapoor, V. S. Kalra, & J. Rhodes (Eds.), The State of Race. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  34. Twine, F., & Gallagher, C. (2008). The Future of Whiteness: A Map of the ‘Third Wave’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31(1), 4–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Virdee, S. (2014). With Racism, Class and the Racialized Outsider. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Voas, D., & Ling, R. (2010). Religion in Britain and the United States. In A. Park et al. (Eds.), British Social Attitudes: The 26th Report (pp. 65–86). London: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Warren, J., & Twine, F. W. (1997). White Americans, the New Minority? Non-Blacks and the Ever-Expanding Boundaries of Whiteness. Journal of Black Studies, 28(2), 200–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Winant, H. (1997, September–October). Behind Blue Eyes: Contemporary White Racial Politics. New Left Review, 225, 73–88. Retrieved from
  39. Ye’or, B. (2001). Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide. Madison, NJ, Fairleigh: Dickinson University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Ye’or, B. (2005). Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis. Madison, NJ, Fairleigh: Dickinson University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Zick, A., Kupper, B., & Hövermann, A. (2011). Intolerance, Prejudice and Discrimination. Berlin: Forum Berlin, pp. 62–63. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of EdinburghEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations