Institutionalization of Governance and the Transition from ‘Fake’ Learning to ‘Real’ Learning: Dispute over the Modernization of a Wastewater Treatment Plant and an Incineration Plant
The case illustrates the process during which a new participatory governance mode was being institutionalized within the organizational structures of the city, how it found its way through the established ways of thinking and acting, eventually becoming part of formal regulations at the city level. Initially, governance as an approach to public management was used above all instrumentally. Yet, even such ‘fake’ learning resulted in institutional changes, initially unintended by the subjects of learning. This unintended result emerged through the process of negotiations over meaning and power struggle. Observation of the process facilitates differentiation between learning as an individual and institutionalization as a meso-level phenomenon.