Asteroid Impacts

  • Andrew Y. Glikson
  • Franco Pirajno
Chapter
Part of the Modern Approaches in Solid Earth Sciences book series (MASE, volume 14)

Abstract

Mars, Earth, Venus and Mercury are all affected by asteroids deflected from the asteroid belt and comets falling off the Kuiper belt, but when the Earth is viewed from space it betrays little or no cratering by large impacts, despite the fact it is located in the trajectory of both asteroids and comets. This impression however is more apparent rather than real and constitutes the consequence of the coverage of the Earth’s crust by oceans over some 2/3 of the surface. The other major factor is the dynamic nature of the Earth, including the accretion and subduction of tectonic plates as well the intensive erosional processes, which obscure its impact history. Thus asteroid impact records on Earth are mostly concealed and are the subject of extensive exploration, using structural, geophysical, petrological and geochemical methods. It is the stable cratons which cratons contain the best preserved impact records, including exposed and filled-in craters and deep-seated impact-rebound dome structures. Documentation of the impact records of the Australian continent and marine shelves includes impact ejecta/fallout units, exposed impact structures, buried impact structures, meteorite craters and ring and dome geophysical anomalies of unproven origin. The identification of impact structures and impact ejecta/fallout deposits is fraught with complications. Initial references to circular morphological and drainage patterns, round lakes and oval depressions may provide a hint to possible underlying ring or dome structures, requiring field tests or drilling. Where impact structures have been destroyed, the presence of impact ejecta/fallout in sediments allows further insights into the impact history of the Earth.

References

  1. Abels A (2005) Spider impact structure, Kimberley Plateau, Western Australia: interpretations of formation mechanism and age based on integrated map-scale data. Aust J Earth Sci 52:653–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Addison WD, Brumpton GR, Vallini DA, McNaughton NJ, Davis DW, Kissin SA, Fralick PW, Hammond AL (2005) Discovery of distal ejecta from the 1850 Ma Sudbury impact event. Geology 33:193–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexopoulos JS, Grieve RAF, Robertson PB (1988) Microscopic lamellar deformation features in quartz: discriminative characteristics of shock-generated varieties. Geology 16:796–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldwin RB (1985) Relative and absolute ages of individual craters and the rates of in-falls on the moon in the post-imbrium period. Icarus 61:63–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barlow NG (1990) Estimating the terrestrial crater production rate during the late heavy bombardment period. Lunar Planet Inst Contrib 746:4–7Google Scholar
  6. Bolhar R, Kamber BS, Moorbath S, Fedo CM, Whitehouse MJ (2004) Characterization of early Archaean chemical sediments by trace element signatures. Earth Planet Sci Lett 222:43–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. BVTP (1981) Basaltic volcanism on the terrestrial planets. The Lunar and Planetary Institute/Pergamon Press, Inc., Houston/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Byerly GR, Lowe DR (1994) Spinels from archaean impact spherules. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:3469–3486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Byerly GR, Kröner A, Lowe DR, Todt W, Walsh MM (1996) Prolonged magmatism and time constraints for sediments deposition in the early archaean Barberton greenstone belt: evidence from the Upper Onverwacht and Fig Tree Groups. Precambrian Res 78:125–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Byerly GR, Lowe DR, Wooden JL, Xie X (2002) An archaean impact layer from the Pilbara and Kaapvaal Cratons. Science 297:1325–1327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cannon WF, Schulz KJ, Wright J, Horton D, Kring A (2010) The Sudbury impact layer in the Paleoproterozoic iron ranges of Northern Michigan, USA. Geol Soc Am Bull 122:50–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carter NL (1965) Basal quartz deformation lamellae – a criterion for recognition of impactites. Am J Sci 263:786–806Google Scholar
  13. Carter NL (1968) Meteoritic impact and deformation of quartz. Science 160:526–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carter NL, Officer CB, Chesnerc A, Rose WI (1986) Dynamic deformation of volcanic ejecta from the Toba caldera: possible relevance to cretaceous/tertiary boundary phenomena. Geology 14:380–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chadwick B, Claeys P, Simonson BM (2000) New evidence for a large palaeoproterozoic impact spherules in a dolomite layer in the Ketilidian orogen South Greenland. J Geol Soc Lond 158:331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chyba CF (1993) The violent environment of the origin of life: progress and uncertainties. Geochim et Cosmochim Acta 57:3351–3358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chyba CF, Sagan C (1996) Comets as the source of prebiotic organic molecules for the early Earth. In: Thomas PJ, Chyba CF, McKay CP (eds) Comets and the origin and evolution of life. Springer, New York, pp 147–174Google Scholar
  18. Cloud P (1973) Paleoecological significance of the banded iron formation. Econ Geol 68:1135–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Culler TS, Becker TA, Muller RA, Renne PR (2000) Lunar impact history from 39Ar/40Ar dating of glass spherules. Science 287:1785–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Da Silva JJRF, Williams RJP (1991) The biological chemistry of the elements: the inorganic chemistry of life. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 600Google Scholar
  21. Delsemme AH (2000) Cometary origin of the biosphere: 1999 Kuiper prize lecture. Icarus 146:313–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ferriere L, Morrow JR, Amgaa T, Koeberl C (2009) Systematic study of universal-stage measurements of planar deformation features in shocked quartz: implications for statistical significance and representation of results. Meteor Planet Sci 44:925–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. French BM (1998) Traces of catastrophe – a handbook of shock metamorphic effects in terrestrial meteorite impact structures. Lunar Planet Sci Inst Contrib 954:120Google Scholar
  24. French BM, Koeberl C (2010) The convincing identification of terrestrial meteorite impact structures: what works what doesn’t and why. Earth Sci Rev 98:123–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Garde AA, Glikson AY (2011) Poster: recognition of re-deformed planar deformation features (PDFs) in large impact structures Maniitsoq impact structure and planar deformation features orientations. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2011/pdf/5246.pdf
  26. Garde AA, McDonald I, Dyck B, Keulen N (2012) Searching for giant ancient impact structures on Earth: the Meso-Archaean Maniitsoq structure, West Greenland. Earth Planet Sci Lett 337:197–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gibson RL, Reimold WU (2001) The Vredefort impact structure South Africa: the scientific evidence and a two-day excursion guide. Council Geosci Mem 92:111Google Scholar
  28. Glass BP, Burns CA (1988) Microkrystites: a new term for impact-produced glassy spherules containing primary crystallites. Proc Lunar Planet Sci Conf XVIII:455–458Google Scholar
  29. Glikson AY (2004) Early Precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed debris flows exotic boulders and turbulence features associated with 3.47–2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Astrobiology 4:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Glikson AY (2005) Geochemical and isotopic signatures of archaean to early proterozoic extraterrestrial impact ejecta/fallout units. Aust J Earth Sci 52:785–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Glikson AY (2006) Asteroid impact ejecta units overlain by iron rich sediments in 3.5–2.4 Ga terrains Pilbara and Kaapvaal Cratons: accidental or cause–effect relationships? Earth Planet Sci Lett 246:149–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Glikson AY (2008) Field evidence of Eros-scale asteroids and impact-forcing of Precambrian geodynamic episodes, Kaapvaal (South Africa) and Pilbara (Western Australia) Cratons. Earth Planet Sci Lett 267:558–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Glikson AY, Allen C (2004) Iridium anomalies and fractionated siderophile element patterns in impact ejecta, Brockman Iron Formation, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia: evidence for a major asteroid impact in simatic crustal regions of the early proterozoic earth. Earth Planet Sci Lett 220:247–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Glikson AY, Hickman AH (2014) Coupled asteroid impacts and banded iron-formations, Fortescue and Hamersley groups, Pilbara, Western Australia. Aust J Earth Sci 61:689–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Glikson AY, Uysal IT (2013) Geophysical and structural criteria for the identification of buried impact structures, with reference to Australia. Earth-Sci Rev 125:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Glikson AY, Vickers J (2006) The 3.26–3.24 Ga Barberton asteroid impact cluster: tests of tectonic and magmatic consequences Pilbara Craton Western Australia. Earth Planet Sci Lett 241:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Glikson AY, Vickers J (2007) Asteroid mega-impacts and Precambrian banded iron formations: 2.63 Ga and 2.56 Ga impact ejecta/fallout at the base of BIF/argillite units, Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Earth Planet Sci Lett 254:214–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Glikson AY, Allen C, Vickers J (2004) Multiple 3.47-Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Earth Planet Sci Lett 221:383–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Glikson AY, Eggins S, Golding S, Haines P, Iasky RP, Mernagh TP, Mory AJ, Pirajno F, Uysal IT (2005a) Microchemistry and microstructures of hydrothermally altered shock-metamorphosed basement gneiss, Woodleigh impact structure, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Aust J Earth Sci 52:555–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Glikson A, Mory AJ, Iasky R, Pirajno F, Golding S, Uysal IT (2005b) Woodleigh, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia: history of discovery late devonian age and geophysical and morphometric evidence for a 120 km-diameter impact structure. Aust J Earth Sci 52:545–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Glikson AY, Jablonski D, Westlake S (2010) Origin of the Mount Ashmore structural dome West Bonaparte Basin Timor Sea. Aust J Earth Sci 57:411–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Glikson AY, Uysal IT, Fitz Gerald JD, Saygin E (2013) Geophysical anomalies and quartz microstructures, Eastern Warburton Basin, North-east South Australia: tectonic or impact shock metamorphic origin? Tectonophysics 589:57–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Glikson AY, Meixner AJ, Radke B, Uysal IT, Saygin E, Vickers J, Mernagh TP (2015) Geophysical anomalies and quartz deformation of the Warburton West structure, Central Australia. Tectonophysics 643:55–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Glikson AY, Hickman AH, Evans NJ, Kirkland CI, Jung-WP RR, Romano S (2016) A new 3.46 Ga asteroid impact ejecta unit at Marble Bar, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: a petrological, microprobe and laser ablation ICPMS study. Precamb Res 279:103–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Goltrant O, Cordier P, Doukhan JC (1991) Planar deformation features in shocked quartz: a transmission electron microscopy investigation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 106:103–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Green DH, Ringwood AE (1967) An experimental investigation of the gabbro to eclogite transformation and its petrological applications. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 31:767–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grey K, Walter MR, Calver CR (2003) Neoproterozoic biotic diversification: snowball earth or aftermath of the Acraman impact? Geology 31:469–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grieve RAF, Dence MR (1979) The terrestrial cratering record: II the crater production rate. Icarus 38:230–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grieve RAF, Pilkington M (1996) The signature of terrestrial impacts. Aust Geol Surv J Aust Geol Geophys 16:399–420Google Scholar
  50. Grieve RAF, Corderre JM, Robertson PB, Alexopuolos J (1990) Microscopic planar deformation features in quartz of the Vredefort structure: anomalous but still suggestive of an impact origin. Tectonophysics 171:185–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hamers MF, Drury MR (2011) Scanning electron microscope cathod-luminescence (SEM-CL) imaging of planar deformation features and tectonic deformation lamellae in quartz. Meteor Planet Sci 46(181):1814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hassler SW, Simonson BM, Sumner DY, Bodin L (2011) Paraburdoo spherule layer (Hamersley Basin, Western Australia): distal ejecta from a fourth large impact near the archaean-proterozoic boundary. Geology 39:307–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hill AC, Grey K, Gostin VA, Webster LJ (2004) New records of late Neoproterozoic Acraman ejecta in the Officer Basin. Austral J Earth Sci 51:47–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hurst J, Krapez B, Hawke P (2013) Stratigraphy of the Marra Mamba Iron Formation within the Chichester range and its implications for Iron Ore Genesis at Roy Hill – evidence from Deep Diamond Drill Holes within the East Fortescue Valley. Iron Ore, Aus IMM The Minerals Institute 2013, p 95Google Scholar
  55. Iasky RP, Glikson AY (2005) Gnargoo: a possible 75 km-diameter post-early permian – pre-cretaceous buried impact structure Carnarvon Basin Western Australia. Aust J Earth Sci 52:577–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Iasky RP, Mory AJ, Blundell KA (2001) The geophysical interpretation of the Woodleigh impact structure Southern Carnarvon Basin. Western Australia, Geol Surv of West Aust Rep 79:41Google Scholar
  57. Konhausser K, Hamada T, Raiswell R, Morris R, Ferris F, Southam G, Canfield D (2002) Could bacteria have formed the precambrian banded iron-formations? Geology 30:1079–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kyte FT (2002) Tracers of extraterrestrial components in sediments and inferences for earth’s accretion history. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 356:21–38Google Scholar
  59. Kyte FT, Shukolyukov A, Lugmair GW, Lowe DR, Byerly GR (2003) Early Archaean spherule beds: chromium isotopes confirm origin through multiple impacts of projectiles of carbonaceous chondrite type. Geology 31:283–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lowe DR (2013) Crustal fracturing and chert dike formation triggered by large meteorite impacts, ca. 3.260 Ga, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Geol Soc Am Bull 125:894–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lowe DR, Byerly GR (1986) Early archaean silicate spherules of probable impact origin, South Africa and Western Australia. Geology 14:83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lowe DR, Byerly GR (2010) Did the LHB end not with a bang but with a whimper? 41st Lunar Planet Sci Conf 2563pdfGoogle Scholar
  63. Lowe DR, Byerly GR, Asaro F, Kyte FJ (1989) Geological and geochemical record of 3400 million year old terrestrial meteorite impacts. Science 245:959–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lowe DR, Byerly GR, Kyte FT, Shukolyukov A, Asaro F, Krull A (2003) Characteristics, origin, and implications of archaean impact-produced spherule beds, 3.47–3.22 Ga, in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: keys to the role of large impacts on the evolution of the early earth. Astrobiology 3:7–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lyons JB, Officer CB, Borella PE, Lahodynsky R (1993) Planar lamellar substructures in quartz. Earth Planet Sci Lett 119:431–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Macdonald FA, Bunting JA, Cina SE (2003) Yarrabubba—a large deeply eroded impact structure in the Yilgarn Craton Western Australia. Earth Planet Sci Lett 213:235–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McCulloch MT, Bennett VC (1994) Progressive growth of the Earth’s continental crust and depleted mantle: geochemical constraints. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:4717–4738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Melosh HJ, Vickery AM (1991) Melt droplet formation in energetic impact events. Nature 350:494–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mojzsis SJ, Harrison TM (2000) Vestiges of a beginnings: clues to the emergent biosphere recorded in the oldest known rocks. Geol Soc Am Today 10:1–6Google Scholar
  70. Mojzsis SJ, Harrison TM, Pidgeon RT (2001) Oxygen-isotope evidence from ancient zircons for liquid water at the earth’s surface 4,300 Myr ago. Nature 409:178–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mozjsis SJ, Arrhenius G, McKeegan KD, Harrison TM, Friend CRL (1996) Evidence for life on Earth before 3800 million years ago. Nature 270:43–45Google Scholar
  72. Nutman AP, Friend CRL (2006) Re-evaluation of oldest life evidence: infrared absorbance spectroscopy and petrography of apatites in ancient metasediments, Akilia, W. Greenland. Precambrian Res 147:100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nutman AP, Clark Friend RL, Bennett VC, Wright D, Norman MD (2010) 3700 Ma metamorphic dolomite formed by microbial mediation in the Isua supracrustal belt (W. Greenland): simple evidence for early life? Precambrian Res 183:725–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Peck WH, Valley JW, Wilde SA, Graham CM (2001) Oxygen isotope ratios and rare earth elements in 3.3 to 4.4 Ga zircons: ion microprobe evidence for high 18 O continental crust and oceans in the early archaean. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 65:4215–4229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pirajno F, Hawke P, Glikson AY, Haines PW, Uysal T (2003) Shoemaker impact structure Western Australia. Aust J Earth Sci 50:775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ringwood AE (1986) Origin of the Earth and Moon. Nature 322:323–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Roberts JA, Bennett PC, González LA, Macpherson GL, Milliken KL (2004) Microbial precipitation of dolomite in methanogenic groundwater. Geology 32:277–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Robertson PB, Dence MR, Vos MA (1968) Deformation in rock-forming minerals from Canadian craters. In: French BM, Short NM (eds) Shock metamorphism of natural materials. Mono Book Corp, Baltimore, pp 433–452Google Scholar
  79. Ryder G (1990) Lunar samples lunar accretion and the early bombardment of the Moon. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 71:313–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ryder G (1991) Accretion and bombardment in the Earth–Moon system: the lunar record. Lunar Planet Sci Instit Contrib 746:42–43Google Scholar
  81. Ryder G (1997) Coincidence in the time of the Imbrium Basin impact and apollo 15 kreep volcanic series: impact induced melting? Lunar Planet Sci Instit Contrib 790:61–62Google Scholar
  82. Schoenberg R, Kamber B, Collerson KD, Moorbath (2002) Tungsten isotope evidence from ~3.8 Gyr metamorphosed sediments for early meteorite bombardment of the Earth. Nature 418:403–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sharpton V, Martin E, Carney JL, Lees S, Ryder G, Schuraytz BC, Sikora P, Spudis PD (1996) A model of the Chicxulub impact basin based on the evaluation of geophysical data, well logs and drill core samples. Geol Soc Am Special Paper 307:55–74Google Scholar
  84. Shoemaker EM, Shoemaker CS (1996) The Proterozoic impact record of Australia. Aust Geol Surv Org J Aust Geol Geophys 16:379–398Google Scholar
  85. Shukolyukov A, Kyte FT, Lugmair GW, Lowe DR, Byerly GR (2000) The oldest impact deposits on Earth. In: Koeberl C, Gilmour I (eds) Lecture notes in Earth science 92: impacts and the early Earth. Springer, Berlin, pp 99–116Google Scholar
  86. Simonson BM (1992) Geological evidence for an early precambrian microtektite strewn field in the Hamersley Basin of Western Australia. Geol Soc Am Bull 104:829–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Simonson BM, Glass BP (2004) Spherule layers – records of ancient impacts. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 32:329–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Simonson BM, Hassler SW (1997) Revised correlations in the early Precambrian Hamersley Basin based on a horizon of re-sedimented impact spherules. Aust J Earth Sci 44:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Simonson BM, Davies D, Wallace M, Reeves S, Hassler SW (1998) Iridium anomaly but no shocked quartz from Late archaean microkrystite layer: oceanic impact ejecta? Geology 26:195–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Simonson BM, Davies D, Hassler SW (2000) Discovery of a layer of probable impact melt spherules in the late Archaean Jeerinah Formation, Fortescue Group, Western Australia. Aust J Earth Sci 47:315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Spray JG, Trepmann CA (2006) Shock-induced crystal-plastic deformation and postshock annealing of quartz. Eur J Mineral 18:161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stoffler D, Langenhorst F (1994) Shock metamorphism of quartz in nature and experiment: I. Basic observation and theory. Meteoritics 29:155–181Google Scholar
  93. Taylor SR, McLennan SM (1983) Geochemistry of early proterozoic sedimentary rocks and the archaean – proterozoic boundary. Geol Soc Am Mem 161:119–113Google Scholar
  94. Therriault AM, Grieve RAF, Reimold WU (1997) The vredefort structure: original size and significance for geologic evolution of the Witwatersrand Basin. Meteoritics 32:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Uwins PJR (1998) Novel nano-organisms from Australian sandstones. Am Mineral 83:1541–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vasconcelos C, McKenzie JA, Bernasconi S, Grujic D, Tien AJ (1995) Microbial mediation as a possible mechanism for natural dolomite at low temperatures. Nature 377:220–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vernooij MJC, Langenhorst F (2005) Experimental reproduction of tectonic deformation lamellae in quartz and comparison to shock-induced planar deformation features. Meteorit Planet Sci 40:1353–1361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wald G (1964) The origin of life. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 52:595–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wilde SA, Valley JW, Peck WH, Graham CM (2001) Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the earth 4.4 Gyr ago. Nature 409:175–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wilhelms DE (1987) The geological history of the Moon. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1348Google Scholar
  101. Williams GE (1986) The Acraman impact structure; source of ejecta in late precambrian shales, South Australia. Science 233:200–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Williams GE, Gostin VA (2005) The Acraman – Bunyeroo impact event (Ediacaran) South Australia and environmental consequences: 25 years on. Aust J Earth Sci 52:607–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Williams GE, Gostin VA (2010) Geomorphology of the Acraman impact structure, Gawler Ranges, South Australia. Cadernos Laboratorio Xeoloxico de Laxe 35:209–220Google Scholar
  104. Williams GE, Wallace MW (2003) The Acraman asteroid impact South Australia: magnitude and implications for the late vendian environment. J Geol Soc Lond 160:545–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Williams GE, Schmidt PW, Boyd DM (1996) Magnetic signature and morphology of the Acraman impact structure South Australia. Aust Geol Surv Org J Aust Geol Geophys 16:431–442Google Scholar
  106. Zahnle K, Grinspoon D (1990) Comet dust as a source of amino acids at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Nature 348:157–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zahnle K, Sleep NH (1997) Impacts and the early evolution of life. In: Thomas P, Chyba C, McKay C (eds) Comets and the origin of life. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 175–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Y. Glikson
    • 1
  • Franco Pirajno
    • 2
  1. 1.Planetary Science InstituteAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Exploration TargetingThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations