Advertisement

Natural Disturbances and Forest Management: Interacting Patterns on the Landscape

  • Lee E. Frelich
  • Kalev Jõgiste
  • John A. Stanturf
  • Kristi Parro
  • Endijs Baders
Chapter

Abstract

The main tenets of forest health management are to simultaneously maintain productivity and all native species over time, which will in turn maintain ecosystem services provided by the forest. Natural disturbances oppose the stable flow of materials, while removals of timber short-circuit the flow of organic materials to the deadwood pool and reduce the average age of stands and trees across the landscape. It is likely that natural forests possess some level of redundancy with respect to the amount of deadwood and older trees and stands that are needed to maintain forest health, making it safe to remove timber products from the forest. Although this safe level of harvest is not exactly known, using practices such as close-to-nature forestry or best management practices with regard to structural features left after harvesting can ensure adequate residuals and help maintain forest resilience to disturbance. Furthermore, natural and human disturbances are not totally additive because, by chance, some stands are harvested before they are disturbed by fire or wind, making stand and tree-age distributions somewhat resilient to human disturbance. Harvesting stands and trees over a range of ages in the forest matrix of the landscape, thus minimizing truncation of stand and tree-age distributions due to harvest, combined with a system of reserved/reference forests to serve as a baseline for the effects of forest management, is probably the best way to create resilient forests and maintain adequate habitat for native species at all spatial extents and productivity over time.

Keywords

Biodiversity Biological legacy Close-to-nature forestry Forest health Forest resilience Forest structure Reference ecosystem Salvage harvest 

References

  1. Arrhenius O (1921) Species and area. J Ecol 9:95–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aust WM, Blinn CR (2004) Forestry best management practices for timber harvesting and site preparation in the eastern United States: an overview of water quality and productivity research during the past 20 years (1982-2002). Water Air Soil Pol 4:5–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beatty SW, Stone EL (1986) The variety of soil microsites created by tree falls. Can J For Res 16:539–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Castello JD, Teale SA (eds) (2011) Forest health: an integrated perspective. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  5. Chandran A, Innes JL (2014) The state of the forest: reporting and communicating the state of forests by Montreal Process countries. Int For Rev 16:103–111Google Scholar
  6. Çolak AH, Rotherham ID, Çalikoglu M (2003) Combining ‘naturalness concepts’ with close-to-nature silviculture. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt 122:421–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. de Chantal M, Granström A (2007) Aggregations of dead wood after wildfire act as browsing refugia for seedlings of Populus Tremula and Salix Caprea. Fort Ecol Manag 250:3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DeRose RJ, Long JN (2014) Resistance and resilience: a conceptual framework for silviculture. For Sci 60:1205–1212Google Scholar
  9. Donato DC, Fontaine JB, Campbell JL et al (2006) Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk. Sci 311:352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Donato DC, Campbell JL, Franklin JF (2011) Multiple successional pathways and precocity in forest development: can some forest be born complex? J Veg Sci 23:576–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dudley N, Phillips A (2006) Forests and protected areas, guidance on the use of IUCN protected area management categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland/Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Foster DR, Knight DH, Franklin JF (1998a) Landscape patterns and legacies resulting from large, infrequent forest disturbances. Ecosystems 1:497–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Foster DR, Motzkin G, Slater B (1998b) Broad-scale disturbance: regional forest dynamics in Central New England. Ecosystems 1:96–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Franklin JF, Lindenmayer DB, MacMahon JA et al (2000) Threads of continuity: ecosystem disturbances, biological legacies and ecosystem recovery. Cons Biol Pract 1:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frelich LE (2002) Forest dynamics and disturbance regimes. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frelich LE, Puettmann K (1999) Restoration ecology. In: Hunter ML Jr (ed) Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 498–524Google Scholar
  17. Frelich LE, Reich PB (2003) Perspectives on development of definitions and values related to old-growth forests. Env Rev 11:S9–S22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frelich LE, Montgomery R, Oleksyn J (2015) Northern temperate forest. In: Peh K, Corlett R, Bergeron Y (eds) Handbook of forest ecology. Routledge Press, London, pp 30–45Google Scholar
  19. FSC (2016) FSC facts and figures December 5, 2016. https://ic.fsc.org/en/facts-figures. Accessed 7 Jan 2017
  20. Gleason HA (1925) Species and area. Ecology 6:66–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grove SJ (2002) Saproxylic insect ecology and the sustainable management of forests. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 33:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hale CM, Pastor J, Rusterholz KA (1999) Comparison of structural and compositional characteristics in old-growth and mature, managed hardwood forests of Minnesota, USA. Can J For Res 29:1479–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hannerz M, Hanell B (1997) Effects on the flora in Norway spruce forests following clearcutting and shelterwood cutting. For Ecol Manag 90: 29–49Google Scholar
  24. Harmon ME, Franklin JF, Swanson FJ, Sollins P, Gregory SV, Lattin DJ et al (1986) Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Adv Ecol Res 15:133–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heinselman ML (1996) The boundary waters wilderness ecosystem. University of Minnesota Press, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  26. Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ishikawa Y, Krestov PV, Namikawa K (1999) Disturbance history and tree establishment in old-growth Pinus Koraiensis-hardwood forests in the Russian far east. J Veg Sci 10:439–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. IUCN (2014) The green list for protected areas global standard. Available via IUCN. https://www.iucn.org/sites/dev/files/import/downloads/pilot_phase_iucnglpastandard20140515_pdf. Accessed 10 Sep 2016
  29. Jõgiste K, Korjus H, Stanturf JA et al (2017) Hemi-boreal forest: natural disturbances and the importance of ecosystem legacies to management. Ecosphere 8(2):e01706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnstone JF, Allen CD, Franklin JF et al (2016) Changing disturbance regimes, ecological memory and forest resilience. Front Ecol Environ 14:369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jönsson MT, Edman M, Jonsson BG (2008) Colonization and extinction patterns of wood-decaying fungi in boreal old-growth Picea Abies forest. J Ecol 96:1065–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kathke S, Bruelheide H (2010) Gap dynamics in a near-natural spruce forest at Mt. Brocken, Germany. For Ecol Manag 259:624–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kern CC, D’Amato AW, Strong TF (2013) Diversifying the composition and structure of managed late-successional forests with harvest gaps: what is the optimal gap size? For Ecol Manag 304:110–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kraut A (2016) Conservation of wood-inhabiting biodiversity – semi-natural forests as an opportunity. Dissertationes Biologicae Universitatis Tartuensis 287. University of Tartu Press, TartuGoogle Scholar
  35. Krueger LM, Peterson CJ (2006) Effects of white-tailed deer on Tsuga Canadensis regeneration: evidence of microsites as refugia from browsing. Am Mid Nat 156:353–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kuuluvainen T (2009) Forest management and biodiversity conservation based on natural ecosystems dynamics in northern Europe: the complexity challenge. Ambio 38:309–315CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Liira J, Kohv K (2010) Stand characteristics and biodiversity indicators along the productivity gradient in boreal forests: defining a critical set of indicators for the monitoring of habitat nature quality. Plant Biosyst 144:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lindenmayer DB, Noss RF (2006) Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation. Cons Biol 20:949–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lindenmayer DB, Margules CR, Botkin DB (2000) Indicators of biodiversity for ecologically sustainable forest management. Cons Biol 14:941–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lindenmayer DB, Foster DR, Franklin JF et al (2004) Salvage harvesting policies after natural disturbance. Science 303:1303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lindenmyer DB, Franklin JF (2002) Conserving forest biodiversity. A Comprehensive multiscale approach. Island Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  42. Lõhmus A, Kraut A (2010) Stand structure of hemiboreal old-growth forests: characteristic features, variation among site types, and a comparison with FSC-certified mature stands in Estonia. For Ecol Manag 206:155–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mallik AU (2003) Conifer regeneration problems in boreal and temperate forests with Ericaceous understory: role of disturbance, seedbed limitation, and keystone species change. Critical Rev Plant Sciences 22: 341–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Margules CR, Pressey RL (2000) Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405:243–253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Mori AS (2011) Ecosystem management based on natural disturbances: hierarchical context and non-equilibrium paradigm. J Appl Ecol 2011:280–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Morrissey RC, Jenkins MA, Saunders MR (2014) Accumulation and connectivity of coarse woody debris in partial harvest and unmanaged relict forests. PLoS One 9(11):e113323.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113323 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Nowacki GJ, Abrams MD (2008) The demise of fire and “mesophication” of forests in the eastern United States. Bioscience 58:123–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Paine RT, Tegner MJ, Johnson EA (1998) Compounded perturbations yield ecological surprises. Ecosystems 1:535–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Parro K, Koster K, Jõgiste K et al (2009) Vegetation dynamics in a fire damaged forest area: the response of major ground vegetation species. Balt For 15:206–215Google Scholar
  50. Parro K, Metslaid M, Renel G et al (2015) Impact of postfire management on forest regeneration in a managed hemiboreal forest, Estonia. Can J For Res 45:1192–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. PEFC (2016) PEFC global statistics: SFM and CoC certification, Data: September 2016. WWW.pefc.org. Accessed 7 January 2017
  52. Peterson CJ, Leach AD (2008a) Salvage logging after windthrow alters microsite diversity, abundance and environment, but not vegetation. Forestry 81:361–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Peterson CJ, Leach AD (2008b) Limited salvage logging effects on forest regeneration after moderate-severity windthrow. Ecol Appl 18:407–420CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Peterson CJ, Pickett STA (1995) Forest reorganization: a case study in an old-growth forest catastrophic blowdown. Ecology 76:763–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Peterson DW, Reich PB (2008) Fire frequency and tree canopy structure influence plant species diversity in a forest-grassland ecotone. Plant Ecol 194:5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Reich PB, Frelich LE, Voldseth P et al (2012) Understory diversity in boreal forests is regulated by productivity and its indirect impacts on resource availability and heterogeneity. J Ecol 100:539–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rendenieks Z, Nikodemus O, Brumelis G (2015) The implications of stand composition, age and spatial patterns of forest regions with different ownership type for management optimisation in northern Latvia. For Ecol Manag 335:216–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Roy BA, Alexander HM, Davidson J et al (2014) Increasing forest loss wordlwide from invasive pests requires new trade regulations. Front Ecol Environ 12:457–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Royo AA, Peterson CJ, Stanovick JS et al (2016) Evaluating the ecological impacts of salvage logging: can natural and anthropogenic disturbance promote coexistence? Ecology 97:1566–1582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Runkle JR (1982) Patterns of disturbance in some old-growth mesic forests of eastern North America. Ecology 63:1533–1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sedlakova I, Chytry M (1999) Regeneration patterns in a Central European dry heathland: effects of burning, sodcutting and cutting. Plant Ecol 143: 77–87Google Scholar
  62. Seidl R, Fernandes PM, Fonseca TF et al (2011) Modelling natural disturbances in forest ecosystems: a review. Ecol Model 222:903–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Siry JP, Cubbage FW, Ahmed MR (2005) Sustainable forest management: global trends and opportunities. For Pol Econ 7:551–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Snäll T, Pennanen J, Kivistö L et al (2005) Modelling epiphyte metapopulation dynamics in a dynamic forest landscape. Oikos 109:209–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Standish RJ, Hobbs RJ, Mayfield MM et al (2014) Resilience in ecology: abstraction, distraction, or where the action is? Biol Conserv 177:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Stanosz GR, Patton RF (1987) Armillaria root rot in aspen stands after repeated short rotations. Can J For Res 17:1001–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stanturf JA, Goodrick SL, Outcalt KW (2007) Disturbance and coastal forests: a strategic approach to forest management in hurricane impact zones. For Ecol Manag 250:119–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stanturf JA, Palik BJ, Dumroese RK (2014) Contemporary forest restoration: a review emphasizing function. For Ecol Manag 331:292–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stephens SL (1998) Evaluation of the effects of silvicultural and fuels treatments on potential fire behaviour in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. For Ecol Manag 105:21–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Thompson JR, Spies TA, Ganio LM (2007) Reburn severity in managed and unmanaged vegetation in a large wildfire. PNAS 104:10743–10748CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Thorn S, Bässler C, Gottschalk T et al (2014) New insights into the consequences of post-windthrow salvage logging revealed by functional structure of saproxylic beetles assemblages. PLoS One 9:e101757.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101757 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Turner MG (2010) Disturbance and landscape dynamics in a changing world. Ecology 91:2833–2849CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Turner MG, Baker WL, Peterson CJ et al (1998) Factors influencing succession: lessons from large, infrequent natural disturbances. Ecosystems 1:511–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Turner MG, Romme WH, Tinker DB (2003) Surprises and lessons from the 1988 Yellowstone fires. Front Ecol Env 1:351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Turton SM, Alamgir M (2015) Ecological effects of strong winds on forests. In: Peh K, Corlett RT, Bergeron Y (eds) Routledge handbook of forest ecology. Routledge, New York, pp 127–140Google Scholar
  76. Vanha-Majamaa I, Lilja S, Ryömä R, Kotiaho JS, Laaka-Lindberg S, Lindberg H, Puttonen P, Tamminen P, Toivanen T, Kuuluvainen T (2007) Rehabilitating boreal forest structure and species composition in Finland through logging, dead wood creation and fire: the EVO experiment. For Ecol Manag 250: 77–88Google Scholar
  77. Vera FWM (2003) Grazing ecology and forest history. CABI Publishing, OxonGoogle Scholar
  78. Vodde F, Jõgiste K, Kubota Y et al (2011) The influence of storm-induced microsites to tree regeneration patterns in boreal and hemiboreal forest. J For Res 16:155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wagenbrenner JW, MacDonald LH, Coats RN et al (2015) Effects of post-fire salvage logging and a skid trail treatment on ground cover, soils, and sediment production in the interior western United States. For Ecol Manag 335:176–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wallington TJ, Hobbs RJ, Moore SA (2005) Implications of current ecological thinking for biodiversity conservation: a review of the salient issues. Ecol Soc 10(1):15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang G, Innes JL, Lei J et al (2007) China’s forestry reforms. Science 318:1556–1557CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Wenhua L (2004) Degradation and restoration of forest ecosystems in China. For Ecol Manag 201:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Willis JL, Walters MB, Gottschalk KW (2015) Scarification and gap size have interacting effects on northern temperate seedling establishment. For Ecol Manag 347:237–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Woodcock P, Halme P, Edwards DP (2015) Ecological effects of logging and approaches to mitigating impacts. In: Peh K, Corlett RT, Bergeron Y (eds) Routledge handbook of fsorest ecology. Routledge, New York, pp 422–435Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lee E. Frelich
    • 1
  • Kalev Jõgiste
    • 2
  • John A. Stanturf
    • 3
  • Kristi Parro
    • 2
  • Endijs Baders
    • 4
  1. 1.University of MinnesotaCenter for Forest EcologySt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Forestry & Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life SciencesTartuEstonia
  3. 3.Center for Forest Disturbance Science, US Forest Service Southern Research StationAthensUSA
  4. 4.Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”SalaspilsLatvia

Personalised recommendations