Advertisement

Effects of Climate Change on CH4 and N2O Fluxes from Temperate and Boreal Forest Soils

  • Eugenio Díaz-Pinés
  • Christian Werner
  • Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
Chapter

Abstract

Temperate and boreal forest ecosystems cover approximately 13% of the world terrestrial surface and provide a wide range of ecological services to society, including a significant contribution to the regulation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Forests do not only function as major sinks (and sources) for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) but also as significant sources and sinks of other atmospheric greenhouse gases, namely, nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). The importance of forests as regulators of atmospheric concentrations of these trace gases is undebated, but how this function might change in view of the ongoing climate and associated environmental changes remains a matter of debate. On the one hand, increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 could lead to permafrost thaw, dramatically increasing N transformation rates in the soil and associated N2O emissions. On the other hand, declining precipitation or changes toward more episodic rainfall events might result in the opposite, through reduced N2O efflux and stimulated uptake of atmospheric CH4 by forest soils. By providing a set of examples from field and laboratory studies, we present the current knowledge and the research perspectives aiming at a better understanding of the current and future role of boreal and temperate forest soils as regulators of the atmospheric concentrations of N2O and CH4 in the frame of global change.

Keywords

Methane Nitrous oxide Forest soils Temperate forests Boreal forests Global change 

References

  1. Abbott BW, Jones JB (2015) Permafrost collapse alters soil carbon stocks, respiration, CH4, and N2O in upland tundra. Glob Chang Biol 21:4570–4587CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambus P, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S, Butterbach-Bahl K (2006) Sources of nitrous oxide emitted from European forest soils. Biogeosciences 3:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderegg WRL, Kane JM, Anderegg LDL (2013) Consequences of widespread tree mortality triggered by drought and temperature stress. Nat Clim Chang 3:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbier S, Gosselin F, Balandier P (2008) Influence of tree species on understory vegetation diversity and mechanisms involved—a critical review for temperate and boreal forests. For Ecol Manag 254:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batjes NH (1996) Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world. Eur J Soil Sci 47:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batjes NH (2012) ISRIC-WISE derived soil properties on a 5 by 5 arc-minutes global grid (ver 1.2). Report 2012/01. ISRIC – World Soil Information, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  7. Bigler C, Gavin DG, Gunning C, Veblen TT (2007) Drought induces lagged tree mortality in a subalpine forest in the Rocky Mountains. Oikos 116:1983–1994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bontemps S, Defourny P, Van Bogaert E, Arino O, Kalogirou V, Ramos Perez J (2011) GLOBCOVER 2009. Products description and validation report. Université Catholique de Louvain & ESA TeamGoogle Scholar
  9. Borken W, Beese F (2005) Control of nitrous oxide emissions in European beech, Norway spruce and scots pine forests. Biogeochemistry 76:141–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borken W, Beese F (2006) Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes of soils in pure and mixed stands of European beech and Norway spruce. Eur J Soil Sci 57:617–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borken W, Matzner E (2009) Reappraisal of drying and wetting effects on C and N mineralization and fluxes in soils. Glob Chang Biol 15:808–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borken W, Xu YJ, Beese F (2003) Conversion of hardwood forests to spruce and pine plantations strongly reduced soil methane sink in Germany. Glob Chang Biol 9:956–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Borken W, Xu YJ, Brumme R (2000) Effects of prolonged soil drought on CH4 oxidation in a temperate spruce forest. J Geophys Res Atmos 105:7079–7088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bradshaw CJA, Warkentin IG (2015) Global estimates of boreal forest carbon stocks and flux. Glob Planet. Change 128:24–30Google Scholar
  15. Brumme R (1995) Mechanisms of carbon and nutrient release and retention in beech forest gaps. Plant Soil 168:593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brumme R, Borken W, Finke S (1999) Hierarchical control on nitrous oxide emission in forest ecosystems. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 13:1137–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Butterbach-Bahl K, Baggs EM, Dannenmann M, Kiese R, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S (2013) Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls? Phil Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 368:20130122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Butterbach-Bahl K, Dannenmann M (2011) Denitrification and associated soil N2O emissions due to agricultural activities in a changing climate. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 3:389–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Butterbach-Bahl K, Díaz-Pinés E, Dannenmann M (2012) Soil trace gas emissions and climate change. In: Freedman B (ed) Global environmental change. Berlin/Heidelberg, Springer, pp 325–334Google Scholar
  20. Butterbach-Bahl K, Gasche R, Breuer L, Papen H (1997) Fluxes of NO and N2O from temperate forest soils: impact of forest type, N deposition and of liming on the NO and N2O emissions. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 48:79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Butterbach-Bahl K, Papen H (2002) Four years continuous record of CH4-exchange between the atmosphere and untreated and limed soil of a N-saturated spruce and beech forest ecosystem in Germany. Plant Soil 240:77–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Butterbach-Bahl K, Rothe A, Papen H (2002) Effect of tree distance on N2O and CH4-fluxes from soils in temperate forest ecosystems. Plant Soil 240:91–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Callaghan TV, Björn LO, Chapin FS III et al (2005) Arctic tundra and polar desert ecosystems. In: Symon C, Arris L, Heal B (eds) Arctic climate impact assessment. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 243–352Google Scholar
  24. Carter MS, Larsen KS, Emmett B et al (2012) Synthesizing greenhouse gas fluxes across nine European peatlands and shrublands – responses to climatic and environmental changes. Biogeosciences 9:3739–3755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chang S-C, Matzner E (2000) Soil nitrogen turnover in proximal and distal stem areas of European beech trees. Plant Soil 218:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cheng W, Kuzyakov Y (2005) Root effects on soil organic matter decomposition. In: Zobel R, Wright S (eds) Roots and soil management: interactions between roots and the soil. ASA-SSSA, Madison, pp 119–144Google Scholar
  27. Conrad R (1996) Soil microorganisms as controllers of atmospheric trace gases (H2, CO, CH4, OCS, N2O, and NO). Microbiol Rev 60:609–640PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Conrad R (2009) The global methane cycle: recent advances in understanding the microbial processes involved. Environ Microbiol Rep 1:285–292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dalal RC, Allen DE (2008) Greenhouse gas fluxes from natural ecosystems. Aust J Bot 56:369–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Davidson EA (1994) Climate change and soil microbial processes: secondary effects are hypothesised from better known interacting primary effects. In: Rounsevell MDA, Loveland PJ (eds) Soil responses to climate change. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 155–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. De Bruijn AMG, Butterbach-Bahl K, Blagodatsky S, Grote R (2009) Model evaluation of different mechanisms driving freeze–thaw N2O emissions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 133:196–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De Vries W, Reinds GJ, Posch M et al (2003) Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in europe, 2003 technical report. EC, UN/ECE, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  33. Díaz-Pinés E, Heras P, Gasche R, Rubio A, Rennenberg H, Butterbach-Bahl K, Kiese R (2015) Nitrous oxide emissions from stems of ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Plant Soil 398:35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Díaz-Pinés E, Schindlbacher A, Godino M, Kitzler B, Jandl R, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S, Rubio A (2014) Effects of tree species composition on the CO2 and N2O efflux of a Mediterranean mountain forest soil. Plant Soil 384:243–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dix NJ, Webster J (1995) Fungal ecology. Chapman & Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Douglas TA, Jones MC, Hiemstra CA, Arnold JR (2014) Sources and sins of carbon in boreal ecosystems of interior Alaska: a review. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 2:000032Google Scholar
  37. Dutaur L, Verchot LV (2007) A global inventory of the soil CH4 sink. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 21:GB4013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ewers BE, Mackay DS, Gower ST, Ahl DE, Burrows SN, Samanta SS (2002) Tree species effects on stand transpiration in northern Wisconsin. Water Resour Res 38:8–1-8-11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fender A-C, Gansert D, Jungkunst HF et al (2013) Root-induced tree species effects on the source/sink strength for greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) of a temperate deciduous forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 57:587–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Flessa H, Rodionov A, Guggenberger G et al (2008) Landscape controls of CH4 fluxes in a catchment of the forest tundra ecotone in northern Siberia. Glob Chang Biol 14:2040–2056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Galiano L, Martinez-Vilalta J, Lloret F (2010) Drought-induced multifactor decline of scots pine in the pyrenees and potential vegetation change by the expansion of co-occurring oak species. Ecosystems 13:978–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gamfeldt L, Snäll T, Bagchi R et al (2013) Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species. Nat Commun 4:1340CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Gillett NP, Weaver AJ, Zwiers FW, Flannigan MD (2004) Detecting the effect of climate change on Canadian forest fires. Geophys Res Lett 31:L18211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goldberg SD, Gebauer G (2009) Drought turns a Central European Norway spruce forest soil from an N2O source to a transient N2O sink. Glob Chang Biol 15:850–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gritsch C, Egger F, Zehetner F, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S (2016) The effect of temperature and moisture on trace gas emissions from deciduous and coniferous leaf litter. J Geophys Res Biogeo 121:1339–1351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hanewinkel M, Cullmann DA, Schelhaas M-J, Nabuurs G-J, Zimmermann NE (2013) Climate change may cause severe loss in the economic value of European forest land. Nat Clim Chang 3:203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Huber C, Aherne J, Weis W, Farrell EP, Göttlein A, Cummins T (2010) Ion concentrations and fluxes of seepage water before and after clear cutting of Norway spruce stands at Ballyhooly, Ireland, and Höglwald, Germany. Biogeochemistry 101:7–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Huber C, Weis W, Baumgarten M, Göttlein A (2004) Spatial and temporal variation of seepage water chemistry after femel and small scale clear-cutting in a N-saturated Norway spruce stand. Plant Soil 267:23–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. IPCC (2001) In: Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson CA (eds) Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  51. IPCC (2012) In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner GK, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. A special report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the fifth assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Jandl R, Lindner M, Vesterdal L et al (2007) How strongly can forest management influence soil carbon sequestration? Geoderma 137:253–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jorgenson MT, Romanovsky V, Harden J et al (2010) Resilience and vulnerability of permafrost to climate change. Can J For Res 40:1219–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jungkunst HF, Fiedler S (2007) Latitudinal differentiated water table control of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from hydromorphic soils: feedbacks to climate change. Glob Chang Biol 13:2668–2683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kammer A, Hagedorn F, Shevchenko I et al (2009) Treeline shifts in the Ural mountains affect soil organic matter dynamics. Glob Chang Biol 15:1570–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Karbin S, Hagedorn F, Dawes MA, Niklaus PA (2015) Treeline soil warming does not affect soil methane fluxes and the spatial micro-distribution of methanotrophic bacteria. Soil Biol Biochem 86:164–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Keenan RJ, Reams GA, Achard F, De Freitas JV, Grainger A, Lindquist E (2015) Dynamics of global forest area: results from the FAO global forest resources assessment 2015. For Ecol Manag 352:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kicklighter DW, Cai Y, Zhuang Q et al (2014) Potential influence of climate-induced vegetation shifts on future land use and associated land carbon fluxes in Northern Eurasia. Environ Res Lett 9:035004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Klemedtsson L, Von Arnold K, Weslien P, Gundersen P (2005) Soil CN ratio as a scalar parameter to predict nitrous oxide emissions. Glob Chang Biol 11:1142–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Luo GJ, Brüggemann N, Wolf B, Gasche R, Grote R, Butterbach-Bahl K (2012) Decadal variability of soil CO2, NO, N2O, and CH4 fluxes at the Höglwald Forest, Germany. Biogeosciences 9:1741–1763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Machacova K, Bäck J, Vanhatalo A et al (2016) Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest. Sci Rep 6:23410CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Mander Ü, Maddison M, Soosaar K, Teemusk A, Kanal A, Uri V, Truu J (2015) The impact of a pulsing groundwater table on greenhouse gas emissions in riparian grey alder stands. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:2360–2371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Matson A, Pennock D, Bedard-Haughn A (2009) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from mature forest stands in the boreal forest, Saskatchewan, Canada. For Ecol Manag 258:1073–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Maurer D, Kolb S, Haumaier L, Borken W (2008) Inhibition of atmospheric methane oxidation by monoterpenes in Norway spruce and European beech soils. Soil Biol Biochem 40:3014–3020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mcvicar K, Kellman L (2014) Growing season nitrous oxide fluxes across a 125+ year harvested red spruce forest chronosequence. Biogeochemistry 120:225–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Menyailo OV, Hungate B (2005) Tree species effects on potential production and consumption of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide: the Siberian afforestation experiment. In: Binkley D, Menyailo OV (eds) Tree species effects on soils: implications for global change. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 293–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  69. Nykänen H, Heikkinen JEP, Pirinen L, Tiilikainen K, Martikainen P (2003) Annual CO2 exchange and CH4 fluxes on a subarctic palsa mire during climatically different years. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 17:18–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Olson DM, Dinerstein E, Wikramanayake ED et al (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth: a new global map of terrestrial ecoregions provides an innovative tool for conserving biodiversity. Bioscience 51:933–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pan Y, Birdsey RA, Fang J et al (2011) A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science 333:988–993CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Pangala SR, Hornibrook ERC, Gowing DJ, Gauci V (2015) The contribution of trees to ecosystem methane emissions in a temperate forested wetland. Glob Chang Biol 21:2642–2654CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Papen H, Rosenkranz P, Butterbach-Bahl K, Gasche R, Willibald G, Brüggemann N (2003) Effects of tree species on C- and N- cycling and biosphere-atmosphere exchange of trace gases in forests. In: Binkley D, Menyailo O (eds) Tree species effects on soils: implications for global change. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 165–172Google Scholar
  74. Philippot L, Cuhel J, Saby NBA et al (2009) Mapping field-scale spatial patterns of size and activity of the denitrifier community. Environ Microbiol 11:1518–1526CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Pilegaard K, Skiba U, Ambus P et al (2006) Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O). Biogeosciences 3:651–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rebetez M, Dobbertin M (2004) Climate change may already threaten Scots pine stands in the Swiss Alps. Theor Appl Climatol 79:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Roman-Cuesta RM, Rufino MC, Herold M et al (2016) Hotspots of gross emissions from the land use sector: patterns, uncertainties, and leading emission sources for the period 2000–2005 in the tropics. Biogeosciences 13:4253–4269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rosenkranz P, Dannenmann M, Brüggemann N, Papen H, Berger U, Zumbusch E, Butterbach-Bahl K (2010) Gross rates of ammonification and nitrification at a nitrogen-saturated spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand in southern Germany. Eur J Soil Sci 61:745–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rouse WR, Bello RL, Souza A, Griffis TJ, Lafleur PM (2002) The annual carbon budget for fen and forest in a wetland at Arctic treeline. Arctic 55:229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rusch H, Rennenberg H (1998) Black alder (Alnus Glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) trees mediate methane and nitrous oxide emission from the soil to the atmosphere. Plant Soil 201:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sayer EJ (2006) Using experimental manipulation to assess the roles of leaf litter in the functioning of forest ecosystems. Biol Rev 81:1–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Schaefer K, Lantuit H, Romanovsky VE, Schuur EG, Witt R (2014) The impact of the permafrost carbon feedback on global climate. Environ Res Lett 9:085003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schelhaas M-J, Nabuurs G-J, Schuck A (2003) Natural disturbances in the European forests in the 19th and 20th centuries. Glob Chang Biol 9:1620–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schuur EG, Mcguire AD, Schädel C et al (2015) Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback. Nature 520:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Serreze MC, Walsh JE, Chapin FS et al (2000) Observational evidence of recent change in the northern high-latitude environment. Clim Chang 46:159–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Simón N, Montes F, Díaz-Pinés E, Benavides R, Roig S, Rubio A (2013) Spatial distribution of the soil organic carbon pool in a Holm oak dehesa in Spain. Plant Soil 366:537–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sitaula BK, Bakken LR (1993) Nitrous oxide release from spruce forest soil: relationships with nitrification, methane uptake, temperature, moisture and fertilization. Soil Biol Biochem 25:1415–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sjögersten S, Wookey PA (2002) Spatio-temporal variability and environmental controls of methane fluxes at the forest–tundra ecotone in the Fennoscandian mountains. Glob Chang Biol 8:885–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Strömgren M, Hedwall PO, Olsson BA (2016) Effects of stump harvest and site preparation on N2O and CH4 emissions from boreal forest soils after clear-cutting. For Ecol Manag 371:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Takakai F, Desyatkin AR, Lopez CML, Fedorov AN, Desyatkin RV, Hatano R (2008) CH4 and N2O emissions from a forest-alas ecosystem in the permafrost taiga forest region, eastern Siberia, Russia. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 113:G02002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tupek B, Minkkinen K, Pumpanen J, Vesala T, Nikinmaa E (2015) CH4 and N2O dynamics in the boreal forest–mire ecotone. Biogeosciences 12:281–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Van Haren JLM, De Oliveira RC, Restrepo-Coupe N, Hutyra L, De Camargo PB, Keller M, Saleska SR (2010) Do plant species influence soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in a diverse tropical forest? J Geophys Res Biogeosci 115:G03010Google Scholar
  93. Vesterdal L, Schmidt IK, Callesen I, Nilsson LO, Gundersen P (2008) Carbon and nitrogen in forest floor and mineral soil under six common European tree species. For Ecol Manag 255:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Volney WJA, Fleming RA (2000) Climate change and impacts of boreal forest insects. Agric Ecosyst Environ 82:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Westerling AL, Hidalgo HG, Cayan DR, Swetnam TW (2006) Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity. Science 313:940–943CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Wieser G (2010) Lessons from the timberline ecotone in the Central Tyrolean Alps: a review. Plant Ecol Div 5:127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wu X, Brüggemann N, Gasche R, Papen H, Willibald G, Butterbach-Bahl K (2011) Long-term effects of clear-cutting and selective cutting on soil methane fluxes in a temperate spruce forest in southern Germany. Environ Pollut 159:2467–2475CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Zerva A, Mencuccini M (2005) Short-term effects of clearfelling on soil CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes in a Sitka spruce plantation. Soil Biol Biochem 37:2025–2036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zhang J, Peng C, Zhu Q et al (2016) Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions in mountain forest and meadow ecosystems in China. Atmos Environ 142:340–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhou Y, Hagedorn F, Zhou C, Jiang X, Wang X, Li M-H (2016) Experimental warming of a mountain tundra increases soil CO2 effluxes and enhances CH4 and N2O uptake at Changbai Mountain, China. Sci Rep 6:21108CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Zhu R, Ma D, Xu H (2014) Summertime N2O, CH4 and CO2 exchanges from a tundra marsh and an upland tundra in maritime Antarctica. Atmos Environ 83:269–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugenio Díaz-Pinés
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christian Werner
    • 3
  • Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU)ViennaAustria
  2. 2.Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU), Karlsruhe Institute of TechnologyGarmisch-PartenkirchenGermany
  3. 3.Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F)FrankfurtGermany

Personalised recommendations