The Darkened Horizon: Two Modes of Organizing Pandemics
This chapter deals with the recent darkening of the future horizon in the global fight against pandemics. Since roughly the year 2000, the World Health Organization has collaborated with a large number of local actors and made a concentrated effort to protect the world’s population against emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), swine flu, Ebola and Zika. Although efforts have been made so that the spread of future infectious diseases will be contained through early intervention, the actors in charge anticipate that the extant measures will fail to some degree. They believe it is simply impossible to prevent all pandemics from happening. But steps can and should be taken to lessen the impact of an unavoidable pandemic through emergency preparation. This chapter deals with organizations and organizational networks as key actors in these processes of emergency planning. Without the capacity of organizations to produce binding decisions for their members, which makes planning for an uncertain future possible, pandemic preparedness would not be feasible—especially not on a global scale.
- Aradau, Claudia, and Rens van Munster. 2011. Politics of Catastrophe: Genealogies of the Unknown. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Bynum, William F. 1993. Policing Hearts of Darkness: Aspects of the International Sanitary Conferences. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 15: 421–434.Google Scholar
- Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari. 2005. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Department of Homeland Security. 2006. Pandemic Influenza: Preparedness, Response, and Recovery; Guide for Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources. Washington, DC: Department of Homeland Security.Google Scholar
- European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. n.d. Competent Bodies. https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/about-us/governance/competent-bodies. Accessed 31 July 2017.
- Fenner, Frank, Donald Ainslie Hendemon, Isao Arita, Zdeněk Ježek, and Ivan Danilovich Ladnyi. 1988. Smallpox and Its Eradication. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- Fidler, David P., and Lawrence O. Gostin. 2008. Biosecurity in the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and the Rule of Law. Stanford: Stanford Law and Politics.Google Scholar
- Hobbes, Thomas. 1651. Leviathan or the Matter, Forme & Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil. London: Crooke.Google Scholar
- Horn, Eva. 2014. Zukunft als Katastrophe. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer.Google Scholar
- Howard-Jones, Norman. 1975. The Scientific Background of the International Sanitary Conferences 1851–1938. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- Ki-moon, Ban. 2009. Resilience and Solidarity: Our Best Response to Crisis. Address to the 62nd World Health Assembly, May 19, 2009. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/events/2009/wha62/secretary_general_speech_20090519/en/. Accessed 31 July 2017.
- Lakoff, Andrew, Stephen J. Collier, and Christopher Kelty, eds. 2015. Ebola’s Ecologies. Limn 5, Special issue.Google Scholar
- Leanza, Matthias. 2017. Die Zeit der Prävention. Eine Genealogie. Weilerswist: Velbrück.Google Scholar
- Luhmann, Niklas. 1964. Funktionen und Folgen formaler Organisation. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.Google Scholar
- ———. 1997. Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
- MacPhil, Theresa. 2010. A Predictable Unpredictability: The 2009 H1N1 Pandemic and the Concept of ‘Strategic Uncertainty’ Within Global Public Health. Behemoth 3 (3): 57–77.Google Scholar
- Maturana, Humberto R., and Francisco J. Varela. 1987. The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human Understanding. Boston: Shambhala.Google Scholar
- Ong, Aihwa. 2009. Assembling Around SARS: Technology, Body Heat, and Political Fever in Risk Society. In Ulrich Becks kosmopolitisches Projekt: Auf dem Weg in eine andere Soziologie, ed. Angelika Poferl and Nathan Snaider, 81–89. Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
- Opitz, Sven. 2015. Regulating Epidemic Space: The nomos of Global Circulation. Journal of International Relations and Development 18 (1): 1–22.Google Scholar
- WHO. 1962. International Sanitation Regulations. Treaty Series 22.Google Scholar
- ———. 2000. Global Outbreak Alert and Response: Report of a WHO Meeting. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- ———. 2005a. International Health Regulations. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- ———. 2005b. WHO Checklist for Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Planning. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- ———. 2005c. WHO Global Influenza Preparedness Plan: The Role of WHO and Recommendations for National Measures Before and During Pandemics. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- ———. 2009. Whole-of-Society Pandemic Readiness. WHO Guidelines for Pandemic Preparedness and Response in the Non-Health Sector. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- ———. 2012. Rapid Risk Assessment of Acute Public Health Events. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- ———. 2013. Pandemic Influenza Risk Management: WHO Interim Guide. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- ———. 2015. Framework for a Public Health Emergency Operations Centre. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- ———. n.d. Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network-GOARN: Partnership in Outbreak Response. http://www.who.int/csr/outbreaknetwork/goarnenglish.pdf. Accessed 31 July 2017.
- Youde, Jeremy. 2012. Global Health Governance. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Zimmer, Thomas. 2017. Welt ohne Krankheit: Geschichte der internationalen Gesundheitspolitik 1940–1970. Göttingen: Wallstein.Google Scholar