Evolution of the Vascular System

  • Andreas Bikfalvi


Eukaryotic organisms are divided according to the usual taxonomy of protozoa and metazoans. Metazoans can be classified either as vertebrates and invertebrates or as diploblasts and triploblasts. Vertebrates have an internal cartilage framework and bone, which invertebrates lack. The diploblast/triploblast distinction is made according to the presence of two or three embryonic leaflets from which tissues and organs form. Diploblasts do not possess more than two leaflets (endoderm and ectoderm), whereas triploblasts possess three (endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm).


  1. 88.
    Monahan-Earley R, Dvorak AM, Aird WC (2013) Evolutionary origins of the blood vascular system and endothelium. J Thromb Haemost 11(Suppl 1):46–66. Scholar
  2. 89.
    Cerenius L, Soderhall K (2011) Coagulation in invertebrates. J Innate Immunity 3(1):3–8. Scholar
  3. 90.
    Maningas MB, Kondo H, Hirono I (2013) Molecular mechanisms of the shrimp clotting system. Fish Shellfish Immunol 34(4):968–972. Scholar
  4. 91.
    Theopold U, Krautz R, Dushay MS (2014) The Drosophila clotting system and its messages for mammals. Dev Comp Immunol 42(1):42–46. Scholar
  5. 92.
    Cho NK, Keyes L, Johnson E, Heller J, Ryner L, Karim F, Krasnow MA (2002) Developmental control of blood cell migration by the Drosophila VEGF pathway. Cell 108(6):865–876CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 93.
    Parsons B, Foley E (2013) The Drosophila platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor-receptor related (Pvr) protein ligands Pvf2 and Pvf3 control hemocyte viability and invasive migration. J Biol Chem 288(28):20173–20183. Scholar
  7. 94.
    Fandrey J, Gorr TA, Gassmann M (2006) Regulating cellular oxygen sensing by hydroxylation. Cardiovasc Res 71(4):642–651. Scholar
  8. 95.
    Gorr TA, Gassmann M, Wappner P (2006) Sensing and responding to hypoxia via HIF in model invertebrates. J Insect Physiol 52(4):349–364. Scholar
  9. 96.
    Tiozzo S, Voskoboynik A, Brown FD, De Tomaso AW (2008) A conserved role of the VEGF pathway in angiogenesis of an ectodermally-derived vasculature. Dev Biol 315(1):243–255. Scholar
  10. 97.
    Gasparini F, Caicci F, Rigon F, Zaniolo G, Manni L (2014) Testing an unusual in vivo vessel network model: a method to study angiogenesis in the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri. Sci Rep 4:6460. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Bikfalvi
    • 1
  1. 1.Angiogenesis and Tumor Microenvironment LaboratoryUniversity of Bordeaux and National Institute of Health and Medical ResearchPessacFrance

Personalised recommendations