A Method of Generating Societal Vision Based on the Social Systems Theory
In this paper, we propose a method of generating societal vision based on the social systems theory. When trying to generate innovation for the future society by some kind of new technology, we must have a vision of how the technology will spread in the society and change it. It is quite difficult to imagine how a new technology will spread to and influence the whole society, considering the high complexity and opaqueness of the modern society. To generate innovation and design a better future, some frameworks to understand society as a whole are necessary. In this paper, we first refer to some existing methods for thinking about the future and indicate how they are not appropriate to our research question due to the lack of a framework to understand the societal wholeness. Second, to create the framework, we (1) refer to the social systems theory that considers society as an autopoietic system whose elements are communication, (2) utilise the perspective of a functionally differentiated society and (3) refer to the functional method to analyse the social systems. Further, on the basis of the theory, we propose a method of generating societal visions, and also show the worksheet that is used to practice the method. Through this work, we enable a user to think about the network of the functional systems of the society and its change, and then to imagine the influence or spreading diffusion of the innovation to various areas outside the target domain of the innovation.
We want to acknowledge Yuma Akado, and Konomi Munakata for the help in designing and improving our method and worksheets.
- Borch, C. (2011). Niklas Luhmann. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Bosch, T. (2012). Sci-Fi writer Bruce Sterling explains the intriguing new concept of design fiction. http://www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2012/03/02/bruce_sterling_on_design_fictions_.html
- Dunne, A., & Raby, F. (2013). Speculative everything: Design, fiction, and social dreaming. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Heijden, K. V. D., Bradfield, R., Burt, G., Cairns, G., & Wright, G. (2002). The sixth sense: Accelerating organizational learning with scenarios. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Iba, T. (2016b). Future language for collaborative design. Paper presented at 2016 International PUARL conference, University of San Francisco, California, 28–30 October 2016.Google Scholar
- Kimura, N., Akado, Y., & Iba, T. (2016). The future vision of productive city: Where pattern languages are used. Poster presented at 2016 International PUARL conference, University of San Francisco, California, 28–30 October 2016.Google Scholar
- Luhmann, N. (1970). Funktionale Methode und Systemtheorie. In Soziologische Aufklärung (Bd. 1, pp. 31–53) Aufsätze zur Theorie sozialer Systeme, Köln-Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.Google Scholar
- Luhmann, N. (1981). Politische Theorie im Wohlfahrtsstaat. München: Olzog. (English edition: Luhmann, N. (1990). Political theory in the welfare state (J. Bednarz, Trans.). Berlin/New York: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Luhmann, N. (1984). Soziale Systeme: Grundriß einer allgemeinen Theorie. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. (English edition: Luhmann, N. (1995). Social systems (J. Bednerz, & D. Baecker, Trans.). California: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Luhmann, N. (1986). Ökologische Kommunikation: Kann die moderne Gesellschaft sich auf ökologische Gefährdungen einstellen?. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. (English edition: Luhman, N. (1989). Ecological communication (J. Bednarz, Trans.). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Luhmann, N. (1988). Die Wirtschaft der Gesellschaft. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
- Luhmann, N., & Kieserling, V. A. (Eds.). (1998). Die Politik der Gesellschaft. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
- Maturana, H. (1981). Autopoiesis. In M. Zeleny (Ed.), Autopoiesis: A theory of living organization (pp. 21–33). New York: Elsevier North Holland.Google Scholar