Sonoanatomy: Physiological Structures (Articular and Periarticular)

  • Peter MandlEmail author
  • Emilio Filippucci
  • Irina Gessl
  • Walter Grassi
  • Peter Vince Balint


The wrist and the small joints of the hand are among the most frequently involved anatomical sites in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). Consequentially, they are also frequently evaluated by sonographers both in routine clinical practice and within the framework of clinical trials, providing an opportunity for rheumatologists performing ultrasound to gain a deeper understanding of the pathological processes involved in rheumatic diseases. We provide an extensive introduction into the sonographic examination of the structures of the hand and wrist commonly evaluated by rheumatologists.


Ultrasonography Hand Wrist Anatomy 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Mandl
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emilio Filippucci
    • 2
  • Irina Gessl
    • 1
  • Walter Grassi
    • 2
  • Peter Vince Balint
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine IIIMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Clinica ReumatologicaUniversità Politecnica delle Marche, Ospedale “C. Urbani”AnconaItaly
  3. 3.3rd Rheumatology DepartmentNational Institute of Rheumatology and PhysiotherapyBudapestHungary

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