Co-infection with HIV

  • Margriet den Boer
  • Jorge Alvar


This chapter describes the epidemiology, current spread, and clinical aspects of HIV/Leishmania co-infection and highlights the recently released guidelines of WHO on their management. It discusses the development of resistant Leishmania strains for existing anti-Leishmania drugs and the complexity of chemotherapy for Leishmania/HIV co-infection, which relies on the same drugs that are used in uncomplicated Leishmania. Additionally, prospects for future chemotherapeutic alternatives that target Leishmania and HIV and tackle both infections simultaneously are summarized.


HIV/Leishmania co-infection Leishmania drug resistance Anti-leishmania secondary prophylaxis Leishmanicidal activity of HIV-proteinase inhibitors (HIV-PI) Leishmaniasis relapses 



The Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development supported the WHO Leishmaniasis program and was focused among other activities on the treatment of HIV-Leishmania co-infected patients in Ethiopia. LR is supported by grants from EU HEALTH-2007-223414 and Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria RETICS RD06-0021-06 and PS09/01928.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margriet den Boer
    • 1
  • Jorge Alvar
    • 2
  1. 1.Medecins Sans FrontieresLondonUK
  2. 2.Drugs for Neglected Diseases InitiativeGenevaSwitzerland

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