• Andreas Hofmann


The thermodynamic principles we have introduced in part 2, and subsequently applied to a variety of systems, all had a common point of focus: they were targeting systems in equilibrium. A chemical reaction that has reached equilibrium still exhibits a forward and a reverse reaction, but the rates of both processes are equal, and since the reactions are of opposing direction, there is no net change.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Hofmann
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Eskitis InstituteGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural SciencesThe University of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

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