Advertisement

Mass Society Paradigm

  • Michael Haas
Chapter

Abstract

From Aristotle to C. Wright Mills and Samuel Huntington, democratic politics has been viewed as possible only if civil society mediates between government and the masses. The present chapter traces the origins of democracy and how the Mass Society Paradigm developed from Durkheim’s evidence that industrialization produced alienated factory workers, anthropological studies of elites in small American towns, Mills’s observation that colluding elites were trying to fool the masses with the clever use of media, and Kornhauser’s equivalencing of mass society in both totalitarian and supposedly democratic societies. Much of the discussion demonstrates how Robert Dahl initially rejected but later supported the paradigm, whereas Robert Putnam discovered masses detached from one another as the source of much societal anomie that precludes true democracy, but still stopped short of recognizing the need to confront the entire complexity of the Mass Society Paradigm before democracy can be revitalized. The paradigm accounts for civil strife, deviant behavior, economic stagnation, governmental gridlock, mass movements, nonvoting and nonparticipation in politics, religious fundamentalism, revolutions, scapegoating, war, and worldwide anarchy.

References

  1. Abraham, Steven E. (1996). “The Impact of the Taft–Hartley Act on the Balance of Power in Industrial Relations,” American Business Law Journal, 33 (3): 341–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adorno, Theodore, Else Frenkel-Bunswick, Daniel Levinson, and Nevitt Sanford (1950). The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  3. Alex-Assensoh, Yvette M. (2002). “Social Capital, Civic Engagement, and the Importance of Context.” In Social Capital: Critical Perspectives on Community and Bowling Alone, ed. Scott L. McLean, David A. Schultz, and Manfred B. Steger, Chap. 9. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, William S. (1965). The Nazi Seizure of Power: The Experience of a Single German Town, 1930–1935. Chicago: Quadrangle, 1985.Google Scholar
  5. Almond, Gabriel A. (1956). “Comparative Political Systems,” Journal of Politics, 18 (3): 391–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Almond, Gabriel A. (1960). “Introduction: A Functional Approach to Comparative Politics.” In Politics of the Developing Areas, ed. Gabriel A. Almond and James S. Coleman. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Arena, Philip, and Daehee Bak (2015). “Diversionary Incentives, Rally Effects, and Crisis Bargaining,” Foreign Policy Analysis, 11 (2): 233–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arendt, Hannah (1951). The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985.Google Scholar
  9. Ayorech, Ziada, Sophie von Stumm, Claire M. A. Haworth, Oliver S. P. Davis, and Robert Piomin (2017). “Personalized Media: A Genetically Informative Investigation of Individual Differences in Online Media Use,” PLOS ONE, 10 (137). journals.plos.org/plosone, January 23. Accessed February 7, 2017.
  10. Bachrach, Peter, and Morton S. Baratz (1962). “Two Faces of Power,” American Political Science Review, 56 (4): 947–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bachrach, Peter, and Morton S. Baratz (1963). “Decisions and Nondecisions: A Framework for Analysis,” American Political Science Review, 57 (3): 632–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bakunin, Mikhail (1873). Statism and Anarchy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  13. Balmer, Randall (2010). The Making of Evangelism: From Revivalism to Politics and Beyond. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Baltzell, E. Digby (1958). Philadelphia Gentlemen: The Making of a National Upper Class. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  15. Baum, L. Frank (1900). The Wonderful World of Oz. Chicago: Hill.Google Scholar
  16. Bell, Daniel A. (1961). The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties. New York: Collier.Google Scholar
  17. Bentley, Arthur F. (1908). The Process of Government: A Study of Social Pressures. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  18. Berce, Yves-Marie (1974). History of Peasant Revolts: The Social Origins of Rebellion in Early Modern France. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  19. Berger, Helge, and Mark Spoerer (2001). “Economic Crises and European Revolutions of 1848,” Journal of Economic History, 61 (2): 293–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Berlin, Isaiah (1958). Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Bicha, K. D. (1976). “Western Populists: Marginal Reformers of the 1890s,” Agricultural History, 50 (4): 626–635.Google Scholar
  22. Bodin, Jean (1566). Method for the Easy Comprehension of History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1945.Google Scholar
  23. Bodin, Jean (1576). Six Books on the Commonwealth. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1967.Google Scholar
  24. Boggs, Carl (2002). “Social Capital as Political Fantasy.” In Social Capital: Critical Perspectives on Community and Bowling Alone, ed. Scott L. McLean, David A. Schultz, and Manfred B. Steger, Chap. 8. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Brading, Ryan (2012). Populism in Venezuela. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Burtenshaw, Claude J. (1968). “The Political Theory of Pluralist Democracy,” Western Political Quarterly, 21 (4): 577–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Camus, Albert (1951). The Rebel. New York: Knopf-Vintage, 1956.Google Scholar
  28. Cantril, Hadley (1962). The Politics of Despair. New York: Collier.Google Scholar
  29. Clarke, Paul Berry, and Joe Foweraker (2001). Encyclopedia of Democratic Thought. London: Taylor & Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Confino, Michael, ed. (1973). Daughter of a Revolutionary: Natalia Herzer and the Bakunin-Nechayev Circle. LaSalle, IL: Library Press.Google Scholar
  31. Craig, Stephen C., and Michael A. Maggiotto (1982). “Measuring Political Efficacy,” Political Methodology, 8 (3): 85–109.Google Scholar
  32. Crick, Bernard (2002). Democracy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Crozier, Michael J., Samuel P. Huntington, and Joji Watakuni (1975). The Crisis of Democracy. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Cunningham, Frank (2002). Theories of Democracy: A Critical Introduction. London: Routlege.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dahl, Robert A. (1958). “A Critique of the Ruling Elite Model,” American Political Science Review, 52 (2): 462–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dahl, Robert A. (1961). Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Dahl, Robert A. (1970). After the Revolution? Authority in a Good Society. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Dahl, Robert A. (1979). “A Review of ‘Who Really Rules?’ New Haven and Community Power Reexamined,” Social Science Quarterly, 60 (1): 144–151.Google Scholar
  39. Dahl, Robert A. (1985). A Preface to Economic Democracy. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  40. Dahl, Robert A. (1997). Toward Democracy: A Journey; Reflections: 1940–1997, 2 vols. Berkeley: Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  41. Dahl, Robert A. (1998). On Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Dalton, Russell J. (2013). Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Democracies, 6th edn. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar
  43. Darwin, Charles (1859). On the Origins of Species. New York: Signet, 2003.Google Scholar
  44. Darwin, Charles (1871). The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  45. de Tocqueville, Alexis (1835–1840). Democracy in America. New York: Knopf, 1945.Google Scholar
  46. Derrida, Jacques (1967). Speech and Phenomena. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  47. Dickens, Charles (1838). Oliver Twist. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2002.Google Scholar
  48. Dickens, Charles (1854). Hard Times. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2001.Google Scholar
  49. Domhoff, G. William (1978). Who Really Rules? New Haven and Community Power Reexamined. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  50. Dryzek, John S., David Downes, Christian Hunold, David Schlosberg, and Hans-Kristian Hernes (2003). Green States and Social Movements: Environmental in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dryzek, John, and Patrick Dunleavy (2009). Theories of the Democratic State. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dunn, John, ed. (1992). Democracy: The Unfinished Journey: 508 bc to ad 1993. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Durkheim, Émile (1893). The Division of Labor in Society. New York: Free Press, 1949.Google Scholar
  54. Durkheim, Émile (1897). Suicide: A Study in Sociology. New York: Free Press, 1951.Google Scholar
  55. Durkheim, Émile (1912). Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1976.Google Scholar
  56. Easton, David (1965). A Framework for Political Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  57. Eck, Kristine (2009). “From Armed Conflict to War: Ethnic Mobilization and Conflict Intensification,” International Studies Quarterly, 53 (2): 369–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ehrenberg, John (2002). “Equality, Democracy, and Communication from Toqueville to Putnam.” In Social Capital: Critical Perspectives on Community and Bowling Alone, ed. Scott L. McLean, David A. Schultz, and Manfred B. Steger, Chap. 2. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1961). Public Papers of the Presidents, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1960–1961. Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register.Google Scholar
  60. Elliott, William Yandel, and Dwight MacDonald (1949). Western Political Heritage. New York: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  61. Engels, Friedrich (1884). The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. New York: Pathfinder, 1972.Google Scholar
  62. Fields, Gary S. (1980). Poverty, Inequality, and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Finkel, Steven E. (1985). “Reciprocal Effects of Participation and Political Efficacy: A Panel Analysis,” American Journal of Political Science, 29 (4): 891–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Fontana, Biancamaria (2016). Germaine de Staël: A Political Portrait. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Forman, Michael (2002). “The Labor Movement and the Language of Capital.” In Social Capital: Critical Perspectives on Community and Bowling Alone, ed. Scott L. McLean, David A. Schultz, and Manfred B. Steger, Chap. 11. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Foster, Dennis M., and Glenn Palmer (2006). “Presidents, Public Opinion, and Diversionary Behavior: The Role of Partisan Support Reconsidered,” Foreign Policy Analysis, 2 (3): 269–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Freeman, Samuel (2017). “The Headquarters of Neo-Marxism,” New York Review of Books, 64 (5): 63–65.Google Scholar
  68. Freud, Sigmund (1915). “Thoughts for the Times on War and Death.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 14, pp. 275–302. London: Hogarth, 1964.Google Scholar
  69. Freud, Sigmund (1933). “Why War?,” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 22, pp. 199–215. London: Hogarth, 1964.Google Scholar
  70. Fried, Amy (2002). “The Strange Disappearance of Alexis de Tocqueville in Putnam’s Analysis of Social Capital.” In Social Capital: Critical Perspectives on Community and Bowling Alone, ed. Scott L. McLean, David A. Schultz, and Manfred B. Steger, Chap. 1. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Friedrich, Carl Joachim, and Zbigniew Brzezinski (1956). Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Gabowitsch, Mischa (2017). Protest in Putin’s Russia. Cambridge, MA: Polity.Google Scholar
  73. Galbraith, John Kenneth (1952). American Capitalism: The Concept of Countervailing Power. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  74. Galbraith, John Kenneth (1958). The Affluent Society. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  75. Gerges, Fawak A. (2016). ISIS: A History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gramsci, Antonio (1957). The Modern Prince and Other Writings. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  77. Grant, Oliver (2005). Migration and Inequality in Germany, 1870–1913. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Grotius, Hugo (1625). De Jure Belli ac Pacis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1853.Google Scholar
  79. Gurr, Ted Robert (1970). Why Men Rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Haas, Michael (1968). “Social Change and National Aggressiveness, 1900–1960.” In Quantitative International Politics, ed. J. David Singer, pp. 215–244. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  81. Haas, Michael (1992a). Polity and Society: Philosophical Underpinnings of Social Science Paradigms. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  82. Haas, Michael (1994). Improving Human Rights. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  83. Haas, Michael, ed. (1998). Multicultural Hawai’i: The Fabric of a Multiethnic Society. New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  84. Haas, Michael, ed. (2011). Barack Obama: The Aloha Zen President; How a Son of the 50th State May Revitalize America Based on 12 Multicultural Principles. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  85. Haas, Michael (2012b). Mr. Calm and Effective: Evaluating the Presidency of Barack Obama. Los Angeles: Publishinghouse for Scholars.Google Scholar
  86. Haas, Michael (2014b). International Human Rights: A Comprehensive Introduction, 2nd edn. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  87. Haas, Michael (2014c). Neobehavioral Political Science: A Profession’s Fascinating History, Subfields, Paradigms, Research Agendas, Policy Applications, and Future. Los Angeles: Publishinghouse for Scholars.Google Scholar
  88. Haas, Michael (2016). How to Abolish Racism: Lessons from the State of Hawai’i. Lanham, MD: Lexington.Google Scholar
  89. Haas, Michael (2017a). International Relations Theory: Competing Empirical Paradigms. Lanham, MD: Lexington.Google Scholar
  90. Haas, Michael (2017b). Political Science Revitalized: Filling the Jigsaw Puzzle with Metatheory. Lanham, MD: Lexington.Google Scholar
  91. Habermas, Jürgen (1981). The Theory of Communicative Action, 2 vols. Boston: Beacon, 1985.Google Scholar
  92. Habermas, Jürgen, and Seyla Ben-Habib (1981). “Modernity Versus Postmodernity,” New German Critique, 22 (1): 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hagtvet, Bernt (1980). “The Theory of Mass Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic: A Re-Examination.” In Who Were the Fascists? Social Root of European Fascism, ed. Stein Ugelvik Larsen, Bernt Hagtvet, and Jan Petter Myklebust, pp. 66–117. Bergen: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  94. Hamilton, Richard (2001). Mass Society, Pluralism, and Bureaucracy: Explication, Assessment and Commentary. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  95. Hanifan, Lyda J. (1916). “The Rural School Community Center,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 67: 130–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Harris, Marvin (1968). The Rise of Anthropological Theory: A History of Theories of Culture. New York: Crowell.Google Scholar
  97. Hassner, Ron E. (2011). “Blasphemy and Violence,” International Studies Quarterly, 55 (1): 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hayek, Friedrich (1944). The Road to Serfdom. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  99. Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1820). Philosophy of Right. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  100. Held, David (2006). Models of Democracy, 3rd edn. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Hero, Rodney E. (2007). Racial Diversity and Social Capital: Inequality and Community in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hibbs, Douglas A. (1977). “Political Parties and Macroeconomic Policy,” American Political Science Review, 71 (4): 1467–1487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hobbes, Thomas (1651). Leviathan: Or the Matter, Forme, and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civill. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  104. Hoffmann, Charles (1970). The Depression of the Nineties: An Economic History. Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  105. Hofstadter, Richard (1992). Social Darwinism in American Thought. Boston: Beacon, reprint edition.Google Scholar
  106. Hollingshead, August de B. (1949). Elmtown’s Youth: The Impact of Social Classes on Adolescents. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  107. Homans, George C. (1958). “Social Behavior as Exchange,” American Journal of Sociology, 63 (6): 597–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Homans, George C. (1961). Social Behavior: Its Elementary Forms. New York: Harper Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  109. Horkheimer, Max (1947). Eclipse of Reason. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Horkheimer, Max, and Theodore Adorno (1947). Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Seabury Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  111. Howard, Marc Morjé (2003). The Weakness of Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Hsi, Chu (1315). The Analects of Confucius. New York: Random House, 1998.Google Scholar
  113. Hudson, Michael (1972). Super Imperialism: The Economic Strategy of American Empire. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston.Google Scholar
  114. Hunter, Floyd (1953). Community Power Structure: A Study of Decision Makers. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  115. Hunter, Robert (1914). Violence and the Labor Movement. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  116. Huntington, Samuel P. (1968). Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Huntington, Samuel P. (1987). “The Goals of Development.” In Understanding Political Development, ed. Myron Weiner and Samuel P. Huntington, Chap. 1. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  118. Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar
  119. Huntington, Samuel P., and Joan M. Nelson (1976). No Easy Choice: Political Participation in Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Huxley, Thomas H. (1860). “The Origin of Species.” In Collected Essays: Darwiniana, pp. 71–79. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  121. Johnson, Chalmers (1966). Revolutionary Change. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  122. Kant, Immanuel (1795). Perpetual Peace. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  123. Keane, John (2009). The Life and Death of Democracy. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  124. Keynes, John Maynard (1936). General Theory of Employment. New York: Harcourt, Brace.Google Scholar
  125. Koppell, Jonathan G. S. (2010). World Rule: Accountability, Legitimacy, and the Design of Global Governance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kornhauser, William (1959). The Politics of Mass Society. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  127. Krastev, Ivan (2014). Democracy Disrupted: The Politics of Global Protest. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kuznets, Simon (1955). “Economic Growth and Income Inequality,” American Economic Review, 45 (1): 1–28.Google Scholar
  129. Lasswell, Harold D. (1936). Politics: Who Gets What, When, How. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  130. Lasswell, Harold D. (1951a). The Policy Sciences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Lasswell, Harold D. (1951b). The World Revolution of Our Time. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  132. Lasswell, Harold D., and Abraham Kaplan (1950). Power and Society: A Framework for Political Analysis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Le Bon, Gustave (1896). The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind. Dunwoody, GA: Berg, 1968.Google Scholar
  134. Lemann, Nicholas (2015). “Unhappy Days for America,” New York Review of Books, 62 (9): 25–27.Google Scholar
  135. Lenin, Vladimir (1914). “The War and Russian Social-Democracy.” In Selected Works, ed. J. Fineberg, vol. 5, pp. 123–130. New York: International Publishers, 1935.Google Scholar
  136. Lenski, Gerhard, Jean Lenski, and Patrick Nolan (1991). Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  137. Levy, Jack S. (1989). “The Diversionary Theory of War: A Critique.” In Handbook of War Studies, ed. Manus I. Midlarsky, Chap. 11. Boston: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  138. Lippmann, Walter (1922). Public Opinion. New York: Harcourt, Brace.Google Scholar
  139. Lippmann, Walter (1956). The Public Philosophy. New York: Mentor.Google Scholar
  140. Lipschutz, Ronnie D., and Cathleen Fogel (2002). “‘Regulation for the Rest of Us?’ Global Civil Society and the Privatization of Transnational Regulaton.” In The Emergence of Private Authority, ed. Rodney Bruce Hall and Thomas J. Bierseker, Chap. 6. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  141. Locke, John (1688). Second Treatise of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  142. Lynch, Marc (2016). The New Arab Wars: Uprising and Anarchy in the Middle East. New York: PublicAffairs.Google Scholar
  143. Lynd, Robert S., and Helen Merrill Lynd (1929). Middletown. New York: Harcourt, Brace.Google Scholar
  144. Lynd, Robert S., and Helen Merrill Lynd (1937). Middletown in Transition. New York: Harcourt, Brace.Google Scholar
  145. Lyotard, Jean-François (1979). The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  146. Mannheim, Karl (1943). Diagnosis of Our Time. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  147. Marcuse, Herbert (1964). One-Dimensional Man. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  148. Marsh, Robert M. (1979). “Does Democracy Hinder Economic Development in Latecomer Developing Nations?,” Journal of Social Research, 2: 215–248.Google Scholar
  149. Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels (1846). The German Ideology. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1965.Google Scholar
  150. McLean, Scott L., David A. Schultz, and Manfred B. Steger, eds. (2002). Social Capital: Critical Perspectives on Community and Bowling Alone. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  151. Merriam, Charles E. (1924). Non-Voting: Causes and Methods of Control. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  152. Michael, Sarah (2005). Undermining Development: The Absence of Power among Local NGOs n Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  153. Michels, Robert (1911). Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchic Tendencies of Modern Democracy. Sydney: Wentworth, 2016.Google Scholar
  154. Mills, C. Wright (1956). The Power Elite. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  155. Mills, C. Wright (1958). The Causes of World War Three. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  156. Milner, Henry (2005). “Civic Literacy in Global Civil Society: Excluding the Majority from Democratic Participation.” In Criticizing Global Governance, ed. Markus Lederer and Phillipp S. Müller, Chap. 10. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  157. Montesquieu, Baron de (1748). The Spirit of the Laws. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  158. Moravetz, David (1977). Twenty-Five Years of Economic Development: 1950–1979. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  159. Morgan, Lewis Henry (1870). Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Müller, Jan-Werner (2016). What Is Populism? Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Murray, Charles A. (1984). Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950–1980. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  162. Nechayev, Sergei (1869). The Revolutionary Cathecism. See Confino, 1973.Google Scholar
  163. Neumann, Sigmund (1942). The Total State in a World at War. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  164. Neumann, Sigmund (1946). The Future in Perspective. New York: Putnam’s Sons.Google Scholar
  165. O’Neill, Kate (2004). “Transnational Protest: States, Circuses, and Conflict at the Frontline of Global Politics,” International Studies Review, 6 (2): 233–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Oberschall, Anthony (1973). Social Conflict and Social Movements. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  167. Oldham, James (2004). “A Profusion of Chancery Reform,” Law and History Review, 22 (4): 609–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Packard, Vance (1959). The Hidden Persuaders. New York: Pocket Books.Google Scholar
  169. Parenti, Michael (1973). Democracy for the Few, 9th edn. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2010.Google Scholar
  170. Pareto, Vilfredo (1916). The Mind and Society. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1935.Google Scholar
  171. Park, Robert Ezra (1950). Race and Culture: Essays in the Sociology of Contemporary Man. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  172. Parsons, Talcott (1951). The Social System. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  173. Parsons, Talcott (1955). “McCarthyism and American Social Tension: A Sociologist’s View,” Yale Review, 44 (1): 226–245.Google Scholar
  174. Pew Research Center (2015b). “Trust in Government: 1958−2015.” people-press.org, November 23. Accessed January 16, 2017.
  175. Piazza, James A. (2008).”Incubators of Terror: Do Failed and Failing States Promote Transnational Terrorism?,” International Studies Quarterly, 52 (3): 469–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Polsby, Nelson W. (1963). Community Power and Political Theory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  177. Putnam, Robert D. (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  178. Putnam, Robert D. (1995). “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital,” Journal of Democracy, 6 (1): 65–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Putnam, Robert D. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Putnam, Robert D. (2015). Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  181. Putnam, Robert D., and Lewis M. Feldstein, ed. (2003). Better Together: Restoring the American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  182. Rawls, John (1971). A Theory of Justice, 2nd edn. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 1999.Google Scholar
  183. Ricardo, David (1817). The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. London: Dent, 1911.Google Scholar
  184. Rinehart, James F. (2004). “Religion in World Politics: Why the Resurgence?,” International Studies Review, 6 (2): 271–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Rose, Richard, and Derek Unwin (1969). “Social Cohesion, Political Parties and Strains in Regimes,” Comparative Political Studies, 2 (1): 7–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1762). Of the Social Contract, or Principles of Political Right. London: Penguin, 1968.Google Scholar
  187. Ryan, William (1970). Blaming the Victim. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  188. Sartre, Jean-Paul (1945). Existentialism Is a Humanism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  189. Scholz, John T., Ramiro Bernardo, and Brad Kile (2008). “Do Networks Solve Collective Action Problems? Credibility, Search, and Collaboration,” Journal of Politics, 70 (2): 393–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Schultz, David A. (2002). “The Phenomenology of Democracy: Putnam, Pluralism, and Voluntary Associations.” In Social Capital: Critical Perspectives on Community and Bowling Alone, ed. Scott L. McLean, David A. Schultz, and Manfred B. Steger, Chap. 3. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  191. Scott, James C. (1985). Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  192. Sennett, Richard, ed. (1969). Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  193. Shapiro, Ian (2003). The State of Democratic Theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  194. Simmel, Georg (1908). The Sociology of Georg Simmel. Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  195. Skolnick, Jerome H. (1969). The Politics of Protest. New York: Ballantine.Google Scholar
  196. Smelser, Neil J. (1962). Theory of Collective Behavior. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  197. Smidt, James L., Corwin E. Kellstedt, and Lyman A. Guth (2009). The Bully Pulpit: The Politics of Protestant Clergy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
  198. Smith, Adam (1776). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. New York: Modern Library, n.d.Google Scholar
  199. Snyder, R. Claire (2002). “Social Capital: The Politics of Race and Gender.” In Social Capital: Critical Perspectives on Community and Bowling Alone, ed. Scott L. McLean, David A. Schultz, and Manfred B. Steger, Chap. 7. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  200. Speier, Hans (1952). Social Order and the Risks of War: Papers in Political Sociology. New York: Stewart.Google Scholar
  201. Spencer, Herbert (1882). Political Institutions. New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
  202. Staël-Holstein, Anne Marie Germaine de (1788). Letters on the Writings and Character of J.-J. Rousseau. In Major Writings of Germaine de Staël. New York: Columbia University. Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  203. Steger, Manfred B. (2002). “Robert Putnam, Social Capital, and a Suspect Named Globalization.” In Social Capital: Critical Perspectives on Community and Bowling Alone, ed. Scott L. McLean, David A. Schultz, and Manfred B. Steger, Chap. 12. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  204. Sumner, William Graham (1918). War and Other Essays. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  205. Tharoor, Ishaan (2015). “What China’s Xi Jinping Thinks about Freedom,” Washington Post, July 25.Google Scholar
  206. Thomas, W. I., and Florian Znaniecke (1918–1920). The Polish Peasant in Europe and Amereica. New York: Dover, 1958.Google Scholar
  207. Thrasher, Frederic (1927). The Gang. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  208. Tilly, Charles (1969). “Collective Violence in European Perspective.” In Violence in America: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, ed. Hugh Davis Graham and Ted Robert Gurr, Chap. 1. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  209. Tilly, Charles (1978). From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  210. Tilly, Charles, Louis Tilly, and Richard Tilly (1975). The Rebellious Century, 1830–1930. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Tönnies, Ferdinand (1887). Community and Society. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  212. Truman, David B. (1951). The Governmental Process: Political Interests and Political Opinion. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  213. Turkle, Sherry (2011). Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  214. Turkle, Sherry (2015). Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in a Digital Age. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  215. Turner, Ralph, and Lewis Killian (1987). Collective Behavior, 3rd edn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  216. Verba, Sidney, Kay Lehman Schozman, and Henry Brady (1995). Voice and Equality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  217. Volokh, Eugene (1995). “Cheap Speech and What It Will Do,” Yale Law Review, 104 (7): 1805–1850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Wallas, Graham (1909). Human Nature in Politics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  219. Walzer, Michael (1995). “The Civil Society Argument.” In Theorizing Citizenship, ed. Ronald Beiner, Chap. 5. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  220. Warner, W. Lloyd (1949). Democracy in Jonesville: A Study in Quality and Inequality. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  221. Warner, W. Lloyd, and Paul Lunt (1945). The Social Life of a Modern Community. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  222. Weber, Max (1918). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  223. Whyte, William Foote (1943). Street Corner Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  224. Wildavsky, Aaron (1964). Leadership in a Small Town. Totowa, NJ: Bedminster Press.Google Scholar
  225. Wirth, Louis (1927). “The Ghetto,” American Journal of Sociology, 33 (1): 57–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Wirth, Louis (1928). The Ghetto. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  227. Wirth, Louis (1938). “Urbanism as a Way of Life,” American Journal of Sociology, 44 (1): 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Witters, Dan (2015). “Alaska Leads U.S. States in Well-Being for First Time,” gallup.com/poll/81547, February 19. Accessed February 19, 2015.
  229. Wolfinger, Raymond E. (1960). “Reputation and Reality in the Study of Community Power,” American Sociological Review, 25 (3): 636–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Haas
    • 1
  1. 1.Los AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations