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Kidneys

  • Stephen Alerhand
Chapter

Abstract

Bedside renal ultrasound (US) can be utilized to evaluate for nephrolithiasis, renal failure, urinary retention or decreased output, and hematuria (Figs. 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, 28.5, 28.6, 28.7, 28.8, 28.9, 28.10, 28.11, and 28.12, Videos 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, and 28.5). Although CT scan has classically been used to diagnose kidney stones, US has gained favor owing to its rapid application at the bedside, cheaper cost, and avoidance of ionizing radiation [1]. Larger kidney stones are more likely to be seen on US [2, 3], but more frequently it is the visualization of hydronephrosis as a secondary sign that can help point toward the diagnosis and guide management [4, 5].

Keywords

Renal ultrasound Kidney ultrasound Point-of-care ultrasound Nephrolithiasis Kidney stones Hydronephrosis Urinary retention Decreased urine output 

Supplementary material

Video 28.1

Ultrasound video of the right kidney in the longitudinal plane . The entire kidney is visualized as the probe is swept in both the anterior-posterior and rostral-caudal directions. (Video courtesy of Stephen Alerhand.) (MP4 987 kb)

Video 28.2

Ultrasound video of the right kidney in the transverse plane . The short axis of the kidney is visualized by scanning in the rostral-caudal and anterior-posterior planes. (Video courtesy of Stephen Alerhand.) (MOV 6374 kb)

Video 28.3

Ultrasound video of the left kidney in the longitudinal plane . The entire kidney is visualized as the probe is swept in both the anterior-posterior and rostral-caudal directions. (Video courtesy of Stephen Alerhand.) (MP4 824 kb)

Video 28.4

Ultrasound video of the left kidney in the transverse plane . The short axis of the kidney is visualized by scanning in the rostral-caudal and anterior-posterior planes. (Video courtesy of Stephen Alerhand.) (MOV 6752 kb)

Video 28.5

Ultrasound video of right-sided hydronephrosis in the longitudinal plane. This video demonstrates an anterior-posterior sweep of the kidney, showing moderate hydronephrosis. (Video courtesy of Bret Nelson.) (MP4 303 kb)

Video 28.6

Ultrasound video of bladder distention in the longitudinal plane. (Video courtesy of Stephen Alerhand.) (MP4 1389 kb)

Video 28.7

Ultrasound video of bladder distention in the transverse plane. (Image courtesy of Stephen Alerhand.) (MP4 1279 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Alerhand
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Emergency MedicineIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA

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