Intoxication of Breathing Gases During Diving

  • Olaf Rusoke-Dierich


A part of diving accidents are caused by effects of breathing gases during diving. Normal air contains approx. 78% nitrogen (N2), 21% oxygen (O2), 0.9% argon (Ar), 0.03% carbon dioxide (CO2) and 0.01% helium (He), neon (Ne), krypton (Kr), hydrogen (H), xenon (X) and ozone (O3). All gases except oxygen and carbon dioxide are inert gases. Inert gases are only slightly chemical reactive. They don’t participate in physiological processes and hence will be at the same level expired as they were inhaled. Normally carbon monoxide isn’t included in the normal air. However, with insufficient burning of fossil fuels, carbon monoxide is produced and causes problems during diving.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olaf Rusoke-Dierich
    • 1
  1. 1.Townsville Australia

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