Interventional Procedures

  • Larisa Pinte
  • Florina Pinte
  • Daniel Niţa
  • Iancu Mocanu
  • Vasile Murgu


Interventional cardiology was developed more in the past 2–3 decades, especially with new treatment options for congenital heart disease such as atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and pulmonary valve stenosis. These techniques avoid open-heart surgery. Good long-term results allow treated children to have a normal life.

Recent advances in interventional cardiology were due to the discovery of new techniques, some of them are revolutionary techniques, and also due to the technical improvement of materials used for procedures: new types of balloons, guidewires, devices to oclude intracardiac communications, which assured optimal results after the procedure.

In recent decades, with all medical advances, congenital heart diseases are also common in adults because some diseases in this category are well tolerated until adulthood and due to a specific pathology in patients who had undergone cardiac surgery in childhood (lung failure, residual shunts, or valve stenosis).


Interventional cardiology Atrial septal defect Ventricular septal defect Patent ductus arteriosus Pulmonary valvuloplasty Interventional procedures 


  1. 1.
    Fahed AC, Nemer GM. Genetic causes of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart disease. Mutat Hum Genet Dis. 2012. Available from:
  2. 2.
    Grossman W. Cardiac catheterization, angiography and intervention. 1997. p. 654. ISBN: 13: 978-1451127409.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gikonyo BM, Lucus RV, Edwards JE. Anatomic features of congenital pulmonary valvar stenosis. Pediatr Cardiol. 1987;8:109–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Koretzky ED, Moller JH, Karns ME, et al. Congenital pulmonary stenosis resulting from dysplasia of the valve. Circulation. 1969;60:43–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pinte F. Tratamentul interventional in malformatiile cardiace congenitale la copii, [Interventional treatment in congenital heart diseases in children]. Medicina Moderna nr. 5, [Modern Medicine no. 5]. Bucharest; 1997.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pinte F. Valvuloplastia si angioplastia in bolile congenitale; Actualitati in cardiologie [Valvuloplasty and angioplasty in congenital heart diseases], Ed. Med. Amaltea [Amaltea Medical Editure]; 1998.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Socoteanu I. Tratat de cardiopatii congenitale, [Treaty of congenital cardiopathies] Editura Academiei Romane [Romanian Academy Editure], vol. II, Bucharest; 2010. ISBN: 978-973-27-1915-2; 1847-1885.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Narin A, Unal S. Percutaneous balloon valvulotomy. Circulation. 1995(78):86–91.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pinte F. Valvuloplastia pulmonara percutana in bolile congenitale complexe, [Pulmonary valvuloplasty in complex congenital heart diseases] Rev. Rom. de Cardiologie [Romanian Journal of Cardiology] vol. V, No. 1; 1995.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bergersen L, Foerster S, Marshall A, Meadows J. Congenital heart disease the catheterization manual. New York: Springer; 2009. ISBN: 978-0-387-77291-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jureidini SB. Pulmonary stenosis in the neonate. J Invasive Cardiol. 1996;8(7):16–19.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carp C. Tratat de cardiologie [Treaty of cardiology], Editura Medicala Nationala [Medical Editure], vol. II. Bucharest; 2002. ISBN: 973-659-010-0, 730–739.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sigvert H, Qurreshi S, Wilson N, Hijazi Z. Percutaneous interventions for congenital heart disease. London: Informa Healtcare; 2007. ISBN-10: 1 84184 556 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rao PS. Influence of balloon size on short-term and long-term results of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. Tex Heart Inst J. 1987;14:57–61.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rao PS. How big a balloon and how many balloons for pulmonary valvuloplasty? Am Heart J. 1988;116:577–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rao PS. Further observations on the effect of balloon size on the short-term and intermediate-term results of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve. Br Heart J. 1988;60:507–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rao PS. Late pulmonary insufficiency after balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve. Cathet Cardiovasc Interven. 2000;49:118–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rao PS. Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty in children. J Invas Cardiol. 2005;17:323–5.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    McCrindle B. Independent predictors of long-term rezults after balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. Am Heart J. 1997.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fontes VF, Esteves CA, Eduardo J, et al. Regression of infundibular hypertrophy after pulmonary valvotomy for pulmonic stenosis. Am J Cardiol. 1988;62:977–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kraul U. Long-term rezults after balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty in adults. Am Heart J. 1997.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rocchini A. Use of balloon angioplasty to treat peripheral pulmonary stenosis. Am J Cardiol. 1986.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baumi D, et al. Congenital stenosis of the pulmonary artery. Circulation. 1995;43:56–63.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pinte F, Socoteanu I, Iosifescu A. Valvuloplastia pulmonara in sindromul William–Beuren [Pulmonay valvuloplasty in William–Beuren Syndrome], Simpozionul de ecocardiografie Institutul “C.C. Iliescu” 1997. [Echocardiography Symposium of C.C. Iliescu Institute 1997].Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yoshimura N, Yamaguchi M, Ohashi H. Pulmonaryatresiawith intact ventricular septum: strategybased on right ventricular morphology. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126(5):1417–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Siblini G. Transcatheter management of neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum. Catheter Cardiovasc Diagn. 1997;42(4):395–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rashind WJ. Creation of an atrialseptal defect without thoracotomy: paleative approachto complete transpozition of the great arteries. JAMA. 1968;196(11):991–2.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pinte F, Iacob M. Septostomia—o alternativa a tratamentului chirurgical in transpozitia de mari vase [Septostomy—an alternative of surgical treatment in transposition of the great arteries]. Balkan Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Congress; 1996.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Iosifescu A, Socoteanu I, Fotiade B. Embolizarea arterelor bronsice in tetralogia Fallot [Bronchial artery embolisation in Tetralogy of Fallot]. Balkan Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Congress; 1996.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Siblini G. Coilembolization in the management of cardiac problems in kilogram dren. J Invasive Cardiol. 1997;8(7):32–35.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hamdan MA, Cao QL, Hijazi ZM. Amplatzer septal occluder. In: Rao PS, Kern MJ, editors. Catheter based devices for the treatment of non-coronary cardiovascular disease in adults and children. Philadelphia: PA Williams and Wilkins; 2003. p. 51–9.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Masura J, Gavora P, Formanek A, Hijazi ZM. Transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defects using the new self-centering Amplatzer septal occluder: initial human experience. Catheter Cardiovasc Diagn. 1997;42:388–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hijazi ZM, Cao Q, Patel HT, et al. Transesophageal echocardiographic results of catheter closure of atrial septal defect in children and adults using the Amplatzer device. Am J Cardiol. 2000;85:1387–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mazic U, Gavora P, Masura J. The role of transesophageal echocardiography in transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defects by the Amplatzer septal occluder. Am Heart J. 2001;142:482–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Harper RW, Mottram PM, McGaw DJ. Closure of secundum atrial septal defects with the Amplatzer septal occluder device: techniques and problems. Cathet Cardiovasc Interven. 2002;57:508–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Amin Z, Hijazi ZM, Bass JL, et al. Erosion of Amplatzer septal occluder device after closure of secundum atrial septal defects: review of registry of complications and recommendations to minimize future risk. Cathet Cardiovasc Interven. 2004;63:496–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Divekar A, Gaamangwe T, Shaikh N, et al. Cardiac perforation after device closure of atrial septal defects with the Amplatzer septal occluder. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:1213–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kim JJ, Hijazi ZM. Clinical outcomes and costs of Amplatzer transcatheter closure as compared with surgical closure of ostium secundum atrial septal defects. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8:CR787–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rao PS. Transcatheter occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus. J Invasive Cardiol. 1997;8(7):278–88.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Masura J, Walsh KP, Thanpoulous B, et al. Catheter closure of moderate-large sized patent ductus arteriosus using the new Amplatzer duct occlude: immediate and short-term results. J Am Coll Cardol. 1998;31:878–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hijazi ZM, Geggel RL. Results of antegrade transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus using single or multiple Gianturco coils. Am J Cardiol. 1994;74(9):925.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hijazi ZM, Geggel RL. Transcatheter closure of large patent ductus arteriosus (> or = 4 mm) with multiple Gianturco coils. Heart. 1996;76:536–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tometzki AJP, Arnold R, Peart N, et al. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus with cook detachable coils. Heart. 1996;76:531–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Owada CY, Teitel DF, Moore P. Evaluation of Gianturco coils for closure of large (> or −3.5 mm) patent ductus arteriosus. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;30:856–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    De Wolf D, Verhaaren H, Matthys D. Simultaneous delivery of two patent arterial duct coils via one venous sheath. Heart. 1997;78(2):201.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sommer RJ, Gutirrez A, Lai WW, Mullins CE. Use of preformed nitinol snare to improve transcatheter coil delivery in occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus. Am J Cardiol. 1994;74:834–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hijazi ZM. Device closure of ventricular septal defects. Cathet Cardiovasc Interven. 2003;60:107–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lock JE, Block PC, McKay RG, et al. Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects. Circulation. 1988;78:361–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rigby ML, Redington AN. Primary transcatheter umbrella closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect. Br Heart J. 1994;72:368–71.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kalra GS, Verma PK, Dhall A, et al. Transcatheter device closure of ventricular septal defects: immediate results and intermediate-term follow-up. Am Heart J. 1999;138:339–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hijazi ZM, Hakim F, Haweleh AA, et al. Catheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects using the new Amplatzer membranous VSD occluder: initial clinical experience. Cathet Cardiovasc Interven. 2002;56:508–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bass JL, Kalra GS, Arora R, et al. Initial human experience with the Amplatzer perimembranous ventricular septal occluder device. Cathet Cardiovasc Interven. 2003;58:238–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Thanopoulos BD, Tsaousis GS, Karanasios E, et al. Transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects with the Amplatzer asymmetric ventricular septal defect occluder: preliminary experience in children. Heart. 2003;89:918–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pedra CA, Pedra SR, Esteves CA, et al. Percutaneous closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects with the Amplatzer device: technical and morphological considerations. Cathet Cardiovasc Interven. 2004;61:403–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pawelec-Wojtalik M, Masura J, Siwinska A, et al. Transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect using an Amplatzer occluder—early results. Kardiol Pol. 2004;61:31–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larisa Pinte
    • 1
  • Florina Pinte
    • 2
  • Daniel Niţa
    • 3
  • Iancu Mocanu
    • 4
  • Vasile Murgu
    • 5
  1. 1.Internal Medicine DepartmentColentina Clinical HospitalBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Department of Interventional CardiologyMedlife – AngiolifeBucharestRomania
  3. 3.Interventional Cardiology DepartmentCentral Military HospitalBucharestRomania
  4. 4.Department of Cardiovascular SurgerySanador HospitalBucharestRomania
  5. 5.Department of ITUCentral Military HospitalBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations