Cardiac Catheterization and Angiography

  • Larisa Pinte
  • Florina Pinte
  • Ana Maria Cristian
  • Iancu Mocanu
  • Vasile Murgu
  • Liviu Stan


Cardiac catheterization is an invasive investigation which offers the benefit of a diagnostic certainty in congenital heart disease with, some of which having a great deal of complexity.

The investigation may also be useful in some cases of complicated valvular diseases, as well as in making differential diagnosis of some myocardial or pericardial lesions.

Using this invasive procedure, pressures and oximetries in the heart cavities and great vessels are recorded, thus determining transvalvular gradients, cardiac shunts and the severity of pulmonary hypertension. Cardiac angiography brings extra data about the anatomy of the heart and vessels, allowing accurate diagnostics.

Although there are major progresses in imaging performing echocardiographic exams, cardiac catheterization is still the “gold standard” in complex congenital heart diseases for determining sequential gradients, bidirectional cardiac shunts, as well as stenosis of the peripheral branches of the pulmonary artery.

Last but not least, it should be mentioned the major advantage that this invasive procedure has, it offers the possibility to solve some cardiac malformations (septal defects, valvular/vascular stenosis, etc.) in the same intervention.


Cardiac catheterization Indications Contraindications Complications Congenital heart diseases Angiography 


  1. 1.
    Eeckhout E, Serruys PW, Wijns W, Vahanian A, van Sambeek M, de Palma R. Percutaneous interventional cardiovascular medicine. The PCR-EAPCI textbook, vol. l. Toulouse: Europa edition; 2012. ISBN 978-2-913628-62-5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mueller RL, Sanborn TA. The history of interventional cardiology: cardiac catheterization, angioplasty and related interventions. Am Heart J. 1995;129:146–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nossaman BD, Scruggs BA, Nossaman VE, Murthy SN, Kadowitz PJ. History of right heart catheterization: 100 years of experimentation and methodology development. Cardiol Rev. 2010;18(2):94–101.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carp C. Treaty of cardiology, vol. 1. Bucharest: Medical ed; 2002. p. 412–75. ISBN 973-8194-65-2.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pinte F. Interventional treatment of congenital heart diseases in children, Modern Medicine no. 5; 1997.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Socoteanu I. Treaty of congenital heart diseases, vol. 1. Bucharest: Romanian Academy ed; 2010. p. 441–56. ISBN 978-973-27-1796-7.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Patel MR, Bailey SR, Bonow RO, et al. ACCF/SCAI/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2012 appropriate use criteria for diagnostic catheterization. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(22):1995–2027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aviles RJ, Messerli AW, Askari AT, Penn MS, Topol EJ. Introductory guide to cardiac catheterization. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004. ISBN 978-0-7817-5202-2.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Paun R. Treaty of internal medicine, Vol. 1, Part 1, Cardiovascular diseases, Medical ed; 1989. ISBN 973-39-0212-8.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Singh J, Daftary A. Iodinated contrast media and their adverse reactions. J Nucl Med Technol. 2008;36:69–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tepel M, Aspelin P, Lameire N. Contrast-induced nephropathy: a clinical and evidence-based approach. Circulation. 2006;113:1799–806.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Davidson CJ, Bonow RO. Cardiac catheterization. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, editors. Braunwald s heart disease. A textbook of cardiovascular medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2015. p. 364–85. ISBN 976-1-4557-5133-4.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hanna BE, Glancy DL. Practical cardiovascular hemodynamics. New York: Demos Medical; 2013. ISBN 978-1-936287-8.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mullins CE. Cardiac catheterization in congenital heart disease. Oxford: Blackwell Futura; 2006. p. 1–25. 272-350, ISBN 978-1-4051-2200-9.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Grossman W. Cardiac catheterization, angiography and intervention. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000. p. 75–8. ISBN 0-683-30741-X.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Apetrei E. Clinical cardiology, Callistro ed; 2015. p. 227–241. ISBN 978-606-8043-18-0.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Keith JD, Rowe RD, Vlad P. Heart disease in infancy and childhood. New York: The Med. Mil. Comp; 1988.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hoffman JIE. Congenital heart disease. Ped Clin North Am. 1990;37: 45.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ragosta M. Textbook of clinical hemodynamics Saunders Eselvier ed; 2008. p. 16–37, ISBN 978-1-4160-4000-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bergersen L, Foerster S, Marshall A, Meadows J. Congenital heart disease the catheterization manual. Berlin: Springer; 2009. ISBN 978-0-387-77291-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larisa Pinte
    • 1
  • Florina Pinte
    • 2
  • Ana Maria Cristian
    • 2
  • Iancu Mocanu
    • 3
  • Vasile Murgu
    • 4
  • Liviu Stan
    • 5
  1. 1.Internal Medicine DepartmentColentina Clinical HospitalBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Department of Interventional CardiologyMEDLIFE – AngiolifeBucharestRomania
  3. 3.Department of Cardiovascular SurgerySANADOR HospitalBucharestRomania
  4. 4.Department of ITUCentral Military HospitalBucharestRomania
  5. 5.Department of Cardiovascular SurgeryCentral Military Hos‑pitalBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations