Transthoracic Echocardiography: Improved Practice by Real-Time 3D Acquisition and Automation

  • Kuan-Chih Huang
  • Jiunn-Lee Lin
  • Lung-Chun LinEmail author


Right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) has been approved of important prognostic in many cardiac diseases. However, RVEF in these studies was mostly evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), radionuclide imaging or even angiography, but not the most accessible echocardiography. Most difficulties of right ventricular assessment by two-dimensional echocardiography come from the unusual crescent shape, the anterior location and the complex contraction mechanism. With recently available dedicated software, three-dimensional echocardiography should bring the innate accessibility in to full play, putting in the last piece, the right ventricle, of puzzle of ventricles.


Automatic analysis Imaging acquisition Morphological remodeling Right ventricular ejection fraction Three-dimensional echocardiography 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of CardiologyHeart Center, Cheng Hsin General HospitalTaipeiRepublic of China
  2. 2.Section of Cardiology, Department of Internal MedicineNational Taiwan University HospitalTaipeiRepublic of China

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