African Entrepreneurship: Constraints and Improvements

  • Gerd Junne
Part of the Palgrave Studies of Entrepreneurship in Africa book series (PSEA)


The typical African entrepreneur is a necessity entrepreneur, who works in the informal sector on a small piece of land. Young people would like to be a successful entrepreneur, but hesitate to start a formal enterprise. Their role models are different. Entrepreneurship in Africa has to face more uncertainty than elsewhere, because of the five “C”s: corruption, crime, conflict, competition, and climate change. High uncertainty leads to short-term time horizons. Other constraints include limited education, lack of finances, and bad infrastructure. If these limitations were addressed on a large scale, an enormous entrepreneurial potential could be unleashed.


Necessity entrepreneurs Smallholders Corruption Role of religion Family bonds Illiteracy Infrastructure 

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerd Junne
    • 1
  1. 1.University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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