South Africa’s White Entrepreneurs: An Evolution from Opportunity to Necessity

  • Warren Lloyd
Part of the Palgrave Studies of Entrepreneurship in Africa book series (PSEA)


‘White Capital’, encompassing both the tangible and intangible value held by that sector of the population, in its application to the South African Entrepreneurial environment, has gone through a drastic change over time. Characterised as Opportunity Entrepreneurship in the decades preceding 1994, to what would be largely defined as Necessity Entrepreneurship since the new Democracy prevailed. Defined by its history of struggle against racism and discrimination under Apartheid, in the present-day South Africa has one of the most progressive constitutions in the world, with a strong commitment to human rights and respect for diversity. However, White individuals continue to be more skilled and attain higher education levels than their Black counterparts, and therefore, are more likely to seize business opportunities. South Africa needs increased transfer of these skills and knowledge from the privileged communities to the poorer Black communities, to ensure long-term economic growth and stability in the country.


Opportunity & necessity entrepreneurship White monopoly capital White privilege Afrikaner entrepreneurs Theory of social reproduction Apartheid era Employment equity (EE) Black economic empowerment (BEE) Affirmative action (AA) 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Warren Lloyd
    • 1
  1. 1.Open UniversityHeerlenThe Netherlands

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