Access to Primary Care and Preventive Health Services of LGBTQ+ Migrants, Refugees, and Asylum Seekers
Gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation and their conformance to dominant societal norms contribute to the super-diversity of today’s migration patterns. Regardless of whether or not the individual’s gender identity, gender expression and/or sexual orientation is their reason to migrate, or behind their refugee or asylum-seeking status, non-heteronormative identity complicates the experience in the host country. Language and cultural barriers already reduce migrants’, refugees’ and asylum seekers’ access to health care and non-heteronormative identity acts as an additional barrier between individuals’ human right to health care and the access to care. Preventive health services aimed at LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning) individuals tend to overly focus on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections at the risk of overlooking other health concerns. Furthermore, these services may not always appreciate the inherent heterogeneity of the LGBTQ+ community, at times failing to differentiate between the healthcare needs of non-heterosexual and non-cisgender individuals. This chapter reviews the literature in advocacy of bridging the research and policy gap between the primary and preventive care required by and the care provided for LGBTQ+ migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers.
KeywordsLGBTQ+ Refugees Asylum seekers Gender identity Sexual orientation Access barriers
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