Advertisement

Heterosexual Dating Violence and Social Gender Relations: Voices of Young Portuguese Girls

  • Sofia Neves
  • Joana Torres
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter aims to characterize dating violence and social gender relations through voices of young Portuguese girls. Considering that heterosexual dating violence is a widespread phenomenon in Portugal and Portuguese girls are generally described as both victims and offenders, a critical approach was developed to discuss how gender (re)constructs and (re)defines social practices and narratives about juvenile intimate partner violence. Using a focus-group method, we questioned 107 young Portuguese girls, aged between 11 and 17 years old (M = 13.38), about youth social relationships and intimate partner relationships among young people. Thirteen focus groups were conducted. The data was examined through thematic analysis. The results confirm that dating violence is present in teens’ lives, and is suffered and perpetrated by both girls and boys. Gender specificities are addressed concerning practices, attitudes and motives, with girls admitting to using violence towards boys as a right achieved by gender equality.

Keywords

Dating Violence Gender Girls Portugal 

References

  1. Aboim, S. (2010). Género, Família e Mudança em Portugal. In S. Aboim & K. Wall (Eds.), A Vida Familiar no Masculino: Novos Papéis, Novas Identidades (pp. 39–66). Lisbon: CITE.Google Scholar
  2. Almeida, A. N., Alves, N. A., Delicado, A., & Carvalho, T. (2013). Crianças e internet: a ordem geracional revisitada. Análise Social, XLVIII(2), 340–365.Google Scholar
  3. Azambuja, M., Nogueira, C., Neves, S., & Oliveira, J. (2013). Gender Violence in Portugal: discourses, knowledges and practices. Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 20, 31–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/0971521512465935 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, J. D., L’Engle, K. L., Pardun, C. J., Guo, G., Kenneavy, K., & Jackson, C. (2006). Sexy media matter: Exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines predicts black and white adolescents’ sexual behavior. Pediatrics, 117(4), 1018–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burton, C. W., Halpern-Felsher, B., Rehm, R. S., Rankin, S., & Humphreys, J. C. (2013). “It was pretty scary”: The theme of fear in young adult women’s descriptions of a history of adolescent dating abuse. Issues of Mental Health Nursing, 34(11), 803–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cardoso, A., Espanha, N., Lapa, A., & Araújo, T. (2009). E-Generation 2008: Os Usos de Media pelas Crianças e Jovens em Portugal. Relatório Final de Apuramentos Estatísticos. Lisbon: OBERCOM.Google Scholar
  8. Caridade, S. (2011). Vivências violentas. Uma abordagem científica. Coimbra: Almedina.Google Scholar
  9. Connell, R., & Pearse, R. (2015). Gender: In world perspective (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  10. Conover, P. J., & Sapiro, V. (1993). Gender, feminist consciousness, and war. American Journal of Political Science, 37(4), 1079–1099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Currie, D. H. (1998). Violent men or violent women? Whose definition counts? In R. K. Bergen (Ed.), Issues in intimate violence (pp. 97–111). Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dardis, C., Dixon, K., Edwards, K., & Turchik, J. (2014). An examination of the factors related to dating violence perpetration among young men and women and associated theoretical explanations: A review of the literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 16, 136–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeKeseredy, W. S., & Schwartz, M. D. (1998). Woman abuse on campus: Results from the Canadian National Survey. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Ellison, N. B., Vitak, J., Gray, R., & Lampe, C. (2014). Cultivating social resources on social network sites: Facebook relationship maintenance behaviors and their role in social capital processes. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19, 855–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Enguix, B., & Núñez, F. (2015). Género, sexualidad y posfeminismo en 50 sombras de Grey. Revista de Antropología Iberoamericana, 10(1), 49–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Esqueda, C. W., & Harrison, L. A. (2005). The influence of gender role stereotypes, the woman’s race, and level of provocation and resistance on domestic violence culpability attributions. Sex Roles, 53(11–12), 821–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Foshee, V. (1996). Gender differences in adolescent dating abuse prevalence, types and injuries. Health Education Research, 11, 275–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Foshee, V. A., et al. (2013). The peer context and the development of the perpetration of adolescent dating violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(4), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. FRA. (2014). Violence against women: An EU-wide survey. Vienna: FRA.Google Scholar
  20. Hickman, L. J., Jaycox, L. H., & Aronoff, J. (2004). Dating violence among adolescents: Prevalence, gender distribution, and prevention program effectiveness. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 5, 123–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hines, D. A., & Saudino, K. (2003). Gender differences in psychological, physical, and sexual aggression among college students using the revised conflict tactics scales. Violence & Victims, 18, 197–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Internal security system—SSI. (2017). 2016 annual internal security report. Lisbon: SSI.Google Scholar
  23. Jewkes, R. K., Flood, M. G., & Lang, J. (2015). From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: A conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls. The Lancet, 385(9977), 1580–1589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Karlsson, M., Temple, J., Weston, R., & Le, V. (2016). Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence as predictors for teen dating violence victimization. Violence Against Women, 22(5), 625–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liamputtong, P. (2011). Focus group methodology: Principle and practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Machado, C., Matos, M., & Moreira, A. I. (2003). Violência nas relações amorosas: Comportamentos e atitudes na população universitária. Psychologica, 33, 69–83.Google Scholar
  27. Machado, C., Caridade, S., & Martins, C. (2010). Violence in juvenile dating relationships self-reported prevalence and attitudes in a Portuguese sample. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Machado, C., Martins, C., & Caridade, S. (2014). Violence in intimate relationships: A comparison between married and dating couples. Journal of Criminology, 2014, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Magalhães, M. J. M., Pontedeira, C., Guerreiro, A., & Ribeiro, P. (2016). Cenas.Igualdade. Programa de Prevenção da Violência e Delinquência Juvenil. Lisbon: UMAR.Google Scholar
  30. Matos, M., Machado, C., Caridade, S., & Silva, M. J. (2006). Prevenção da violência nas relações de namoro: Intervenção com jovens em contexto escolar. Psicologia: Teoria e Prática, 8(1), 55–75.Google Scholar
  31. Molidor, C., & Tolman, R. (1998). Gender and contextual factors in adolescent dating violence. Violence Against Women, 4(2), 180–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Motz, A. (2008). The Psychology of female violence: Crimes against the body (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Narayan, A., Englund, M., & Egeland, B. (2013). Developmental timing and continuity of exposure to interparental violence and externalizing behavior as prospective predictors of dating violence. Development and Psychopathology, 25(401), 973–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Neal, A., & Edwards, K. (2015). Perpetrators’ and victims’ attributions for IPV: A critical review of the literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 18(3), 239–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Neves, S. (2014). De vítimas a agressoras: A (aparente) dupla posição das raparigas na violência no namoro heterossexual. In V. Duarte & M. I. Cunha (Coord.), Violências e Delinquências juvenis femininas: género e (in)visibilidades sociais (pp. 63–76). Famalicão: Editora Húmus.Google Scholar
  36. Neves, S., & Fávero, M. (2010). A Vitimologia e os seus percursos históricos, teóricos e epistemológicos. In S. Neves & M. Fávero (Coord.), Vitimologia: Ciência e Activismo (pp. 13–48). Coimbra: Almedina.Google Scholar
  37. Neves, S., & Nogueira, C. (2010). Deconstructing gendered discourses of love, power and violence in intimate relationships. In D. C. Jack & A. Ali (Eds.), Silencing the self across cultures depression and gender in the social world (pp. 241–261). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Neves, S., Cameira, M., Machado, M., Duarte, V., & Machado, F. (2016a). Beliefs on marital violence and self-reported dating violence: A comparative study of Cape Verdean and Portuguese adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40653-016-0099-7
  39. Neves, S., Gomes, S., & Martins, D. (2016b). Narrativas mediáticas sobre o femicídio na intimidade: Análise de um jornal popular português. Ex-Aequo: Revista da Associação Portuguesa de Estudos sobre as Mulheres , 34, 77–92. https://doi.org/10.22355/exaequo.2016.34.06
  40. O’Keefe, M. (1997). Predictors of dating violence among high school students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 546–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Paiva, C., & Figueiredo, B. (2004). Abuso no relacionamento íntimo: Estudo de prevalência em jovens adultos portugueses. Psychologica, 36, 75–107.Google Scholar
  42. Pereira Vieira, C. (2012). “Eu faço sexo amoroso”. A sexualidade dos jovens pela voz dos próprios. Lisbon: Editorial Bizâncio.Google Scholar
  43. Perista, H., Cardoso, A., Silva, M., & Carrilho, P. (2012). Delinquência e violência juvenil em Portugal. Traçando um retrato a diferentes vozes. Lisbon: Centro de Estudos para a Intervenção Social. Retrieved from http://www.youprev.eu/pdf/YouPrev_NationalReport_PT.pdf
  44. Ponte, C., Simões, J., Baptista, S., Jorge, A., & Castro, T. (2017). Crescendo entre ecrãs: Usos de meios eletrónicos por crianças (3–8 Anos). Lisbon: ERC.Google Scholar
  45. Robinson, H. (2015). The changing role of women in Portugal. Perspectives on Business and Economics, 33(6), 49–60.Google Scholar
  46. Saavedra, R. (2011). Prevenir antes de remediar: prevenção da violência nos relacionamentos íntimos juvenis. PhD thesis, Universidade do Minho, Braga.Google Scholar
  47. SSI—Sistema de Segurança Interna. (2016). Relatório Anual de Segurança Interna 2016. Lisboa: Sistema de Segurança Interna. Retrieved from http://www.ansr.pt/InstrumentosDeGestao/Documents/Relat%C3%B3rio%20Anual%20de%20Seguran%C3%A7a%20Interna%20(RASI)/RASI%202016.pdf
  48. Straus, M. A. (2008). Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 252–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Teten, A., Ball, B., Valle, L., Noonan, R., & Rosenbluth, B. (2009). Considerations for the definition, measurement, consequences, and prevention of dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. Journal of Women’s Health, 18(7), 923–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2000). Prevalence and consequences of male-to-femaleandfemale-to-maleintimatepartnerviolenceasmeasured by the National Violence Against Women Survey. Violence Against Women, 6, 142–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tolman, D. (2005). Dilemmas of desire: Teenage girls talk about sexuality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  52. White, J., Merrill, L., & Koss, M. (2001). Predictors of premilitary courtship violence in a navy recruit sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(9), 910–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. WHO. (2016). Global plan of action to strengthen the role of the health system within a national multisectoral response to address interpersonal violence, in particular against women and girls, and against children. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  54. Zweig, J., Dank, M., Yahner, J., & Lachman, P. (2015). The rate of cyber dating abuse among teens and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(7), 1063–1077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sofia Neves
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joana Torres
    • 3
  1. 1.Instituto Universitário da Maia (ISMAI)MaiaPortugal
  2. 2.Centro Interdisciplinar de Estudos de Género (CIEG/ISCSP)LisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Universidade do PortoOportoPortugal

Personalised recommendations