Advertisement

Cyberbullying in Canada

  • Julia Riddell
  • Debra Pepler
  • Wendy Craig
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Cybercrime and Cybersecurity book series (PSCYBER)

Abstract

Cyberbullying is a significant problem in Canada, with high prevalence rates that have remained stable over the past decade (Boak et al. 2016; Craig et al. 2016). In this chapter, we discuss the prevalence of cyberbullying and cybervictimization in Canada, which ranges from 4.5% of university aged youth engaging in cyberbullying at any time (Cunningham et al., 2015) to 33.7% of adolescents in the past three months (Mishna et al., 2010). We explore how these prevalence rates vary according to age, gender, geographic location, and methodological differences between studies. We use Canadian research to identify risk and protective factors according to a social ecological framework, with a discussion of factors at the individual, family, school, and neighborhood level. We then discuss evidence-based interventions aimed to address cyberbullying in Canada, and end with recommendations for how to move the field forward and address the underlying societal dynamics that produce cyberbullying behaviours.

References

  1. BBC News. (2014). Man charged in Netherlands in Amanda Todd suicide case. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-27076991
  2. Bilsbury, T. (2015). A systematic review of the prevalence of cyberbullying in Canada (Master’s thesis). Dalhousie University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10222/58197
  3. Boak, A., Hamilton, H. A., Adlaf, E. M., Henderson, J. L., & Mann, R. E. (2016). The mental health and well-being of Ontario students, 1991– 2015: Detailed OSDUHS findings (CAMH Research Document Series No. 43). Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Retrieved from https://www.camh.ca/en/research/news_and_publications/ontario-student-drug-use-and healthsurvey/Documents/2015%20OSDUHS%20Documents/2015OSDUHS_ Detailed%20MentalHealthReport.pdf
  4. Cappadocia, M. C., Craig, W. M., & Pepler, D. (2013). Cyberbullying prevalence, stability, and risk factors during adolescence. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 28(2), 171–192.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573513491212 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cénat, J. M., Hébert, M., Blais, M., Lavoie, F., Guerrier, M., & Derivois, D. (2014). Cyberbullying, psychological distress and self-esteem among youth in Quebec schools. Journal of Affective Disorders, 169, 7–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.07.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Craig, W. M., & Pepler, D. J. (2007). Understanding bullying: From research to practice. Canadian Psychology, 48(2), 86–93.  https://doi.org/10.1037/cp2007010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Craig, W., Lambe, L., & McIver, T. (2016). Bullying and fighting. In J.G. Freeman, M. A. King, & W. Pickett (Eds.), Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) in Canada: Focus on relationships (pp. 167–182). Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada. Retrieved from http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/publications/science-research-sciences-recherches/health behaviour-children-canada-2015-comportements-sante-jeunes/index-eng.php
  8. Crombie, G., & Trinneer, A. (2003). Children and internet safety: An evaluation of the missing program. A report to the Research and Evaluation Section of the National Crime Prevention Centre of Justice Canada. Ottawa: University of Ottawa.Google Scholar
  9. Cunningham, C. E., Vaillancourt, T., Cunningham, L. J., Chen, Y., & Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Modeling the bullying prevention program design recommendations of students from grades 5 to 8: A discrete choice conjoint experiment. Aggressive Behavior, 37(6), 521–537.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cunningham, C. E., Chen, Y., Vaillancourt, T., Rimas, H., Deal, K., Cunningham, L. J., & Ratcliffe, J. (2015). Modeling the anti-cyberbullying preferences of university students: Adaptive choice-based conjoint analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 41(4), 369–385.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21560 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dafoe, T. L. (2016). The role of social-emotional learning skills in bullying behaviour (Doctoral dissertation). University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  12. Della Cioppa, V., O’Neil, A., & Craig, W. (2015). Learning from traditional bullying interventions: A review of research on cyberbullying and best practice. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 23, 61–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2015.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dittrick, C. J., Beran, T. N., Mishna, F., Hetherington, R., & Shariff, S. (2013). Do children who bully their peers also play violent video games? A Canadian national study. Journal of School Violence, 12(4), 297–318.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2013.803244 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Education Act, Revised Statutes of Alberta. (2012, Chapter E-0.3). Retrieved from the Province of Alberta website: http://www.qp.alberta.ca/documents/Acts/e00p3.pdf
  15. Gillis, W. (2013, April 12). Rehtaeh Parsons: A family’s tragedy and a town’s shame. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2013/04/12/rehtaeh_parsons_a_ family s_ tragedy_ and_a_towns_shame.html
  16. Goldbaum, S., Craig, W. M., Pepler, D., & Connolly, J. (2003). Developmental trajectories of victimization: Identifying risk and protective factors. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 19(2), 139–156.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2013.803244 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holfeld, B., & Leadbeater, B. J. (2015). The nature and frequency of cyber bullying behaviors and victimization experiences in young Canadian children. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 30(2), 116–135.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573514556853 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leadbeater, B., Sukhawathanakul, P., Smith, D., & Bowen, F. (2015). Reciprocal associations between interpersonal and values dimensions of school climate and peer victimization in elementary school children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44(3), 480–493.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2013.873985 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li, J., & Craig, W. (2015). Young Canadians’ experiences with electronic bullying. Retrieved from http://mediasmarts.ca/sites/mediasmarts/files/publication-report/full/young-canadians-electronic- bullying.pdf
  20. Mishna, F., Cook, C., Saini, M., Wu, M., & MacFadden, R. (2009a). Interventions for children, youth, and parents to prevent and reduce cyber abuse. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2009, 2.Google Scholar
  21. Mishna, F., Saini, M., & Solomon, S. (2009b). Ongoing and online: Children and youth’s perceptions of cyberbullying. Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 1222–1228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mishna, F., Cook, C., Gadalla, T., Daciuk, J., & Solomon, S. (2010). Cyber bullying behaviors among middle and high school students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(3), 362–374.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01040.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mishna, F., Khoury-Kassabri, M., Gadalla, T., & Daciuk, J. (2012). Risk factors for involvement in cyberbullying: Victims, bullies and bully-victims. Children &Youth Services Review, 34(1), 63–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.08.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Olweus, D. (1996). The revised bully/victim questionnaire for students. Bergen: University of Bergen.Google Scholar
  25. Pepler, D. J. (2006). Bullying interventions: A binocular perspective. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 15(1), 16–20.Google Scholar
  26. Perreault, S. (2011). Self-reported Internet victimization in Canada, 2009 (Statistics Canada catalogue No. 85-002-X). Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002 x/2011001 /article/11530-eng.htm
  27. Schumann, L., Craig, W., & Rosu, A. (2014). Power differentials in bullying: Individuals in a community context. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(5), 846–865.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260513505708 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. The Public Schools Act, Revised Statutes of Canada. (2015, C.C.S.M c.P250). Retrieved from the Manitoba Law website: http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/_pdf.php?cap=p250
  29. Vaillancourt, T., Trinh, V., McDougall, P., Duku, E., Cunningham, L., Cunningham, C., Hymel, S., & Short, K. (2010). Optimizing population screening of bullying in school-aged children. Journal of School Violence, 9(3), 233–250.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2010.483182 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Riddell
    • 1
  • Debra Pepler
    • 1
  • Wendy Craig
    • 2
  1. 1.York University, Keele CampusTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Queen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations