Advertisement

Retail Crime: Aim, Scope, Theoretical Framework and Definitions

  • Vania Ceccato
  • Rachel Armitage
Chapter
Part of the Crime Prevention and Security Management book series (CPSM)

Abstract

This chapter provides an introduction to the theme retail crime, the book scope, theoretical framework and key definitions used to structure this edited volume and support the reading of the chapters. Retail crime encompasses any criminal act against a store, a company or a conglomerate of companies, their properties as well as their employees and customers. The book also explores how the use of technology reduces crime but may also create new crime opportunities, some linked to organised criminal organisations far away from where crime occurs. This chapter also illustrates how this edited volume contributes to the current knowledge base by characterising the dynamics of retail crime from a multidisciplinary and international perspective with examples from Australia, Brazil, England, Israel, Italy, the UK and the US.

Keywords

Shopping crime Shrinkage Total retail loss ORC Self-checkouts CPTED Routine activity Situational crime prevention Crime pattern theory Rational choice theory 

References

  1. Andresen, M. A., & Malleson, N. (2011). Testing the Stability of Crime Patterns: Implications for Theory and Policy. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(1), 58–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armitage, R. (2013). Crime Prevention Through Housing Design: Policy and Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bamfield, J. (2004). Shrinkage, Shoplifting and the Cost of Retail Crime in Europe: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Major Retailers in 16 European Countries. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 32(5), 235–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bamfield, J. (2012). Shopping and Crime. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bamfield, J. (Ed.). (2014). Security and Risk Management (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  6. Bamfield, J. (2017). Definition of Shrinkage—Email Conversation.Google Scholar
  7. Baumer, E., Lauritsen, J., Rosenfled, R., & Wright, R. (1998). The Influence of Crack Cocaine on Robbery, Burglary, and Homicide Rates: A Cross-City, Longitudinal Analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35(3), 316–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beck, A. (2016a). Amplifying Risk in Retail Stores: The Evidence to Date on Making Shop Thieves Think Twice. Retrieved November 11, 2017, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312524051_Amplifying_Risk_in_Retail_Stores_The_evidence_to_date_on_making_shop_thieves_think_twice
  9. Beck, A. (2016b). Beyond Shrinkage: Introducing Total Retail Loss. Arlington. Retrieved November 11, 2017, from http://www.rila.org/protection/resources/BeyondShrinkageReport/Pages/default.aspx
  10. Beck, A., & Hopkins, M. (2017). Scan and Rob! Convenience Shopping, Crime Opportunity and Corporate Social Responsibility in a Mobile World. Security Journal, 30(4), 1080–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beck, A., & Peacock, C. (2009). New Loss Prevention. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Becker, G. S. (1968). Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach. The Journal of Political Economy, 76(2), 169–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bowers, K. (2014). Risky Facilities: Crime Radiators or Crime Absorbers? A Comparison of Internal and External Levels of Theft. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 30(3), 389–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brantingham, P., & Brantingham, P. (1995). Criminality of Place: Crime Generators and Crime Attractors. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 3(3), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burgason, K. A., Drawve, G., Brown, T. C., & Eassey, J. (2017). Close Only Counts in Alcohol and Violence: Controlling Violence Near Late-Night Alcohol Establishments Using a Routine Activities Approach. Journal of Criminal Justice, 50, 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burges, D. (2013). Cargo Theft, Loss Prevention, and Supply Chain Security. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  17. Cardone, C., & Hayes, R. (2012). Shoplifter Perceptions of Store Environments: An Analysis of How Physical Cues in the Retail Interior Shape Shoplifter Behavior. Journal of Applied Security Research, 71(1), 22–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carmel-Gilfilen, C. (2011). Advancing Retail Security Design: Uncovering Shoplifter Perceptions of the Physical Environment. Journal of Interior Design, 36(2), 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ceccato, V. (2015). Thefts of Goods Transport in Sweden. Paper Presented at the Annual Conference of American Society of Criminology, Washington, DC, November 18–21.Google Scholar
  20. Ceccato, V. (2016). Visualisation of 3-dimensional Hot Spots of Crime in Shopping Centers. Paper Presented at the Retail Crime: International Evidence and Prevention, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  21. Clarke, R. (1999). Hot Products: Understanding, Anticipating and Reducing Demand for Stolen Goods. Home Office, Policing and Reducing Crime Unit, Police Research Series, 112. Retrieved November 11, 2017, from http://s1.downloadmienphi.net/file/downloadfile6/151/1384339.pdf
  22. Clarke, R. V. (Ed.). (1983). Situational Crime Prevention: Its Theoretical Basis and Practical Scope. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  23. Clarke, R. V. (1992). Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. Albany: Harrow and Heston.Google Scholar
  24. Clarke, R. V. (1997). Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies (Vol. 2). Guilderland: Harrow and Heston.Google Scholar
  25. Clarke, R. V., & Petrossian, G. (2013). Shoplifting, Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Problem-Specific Guides Series (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.Google Scholar
  26. Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach. American Sociological Review, 44(4), 588–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohn, E. G., & Rotton, J. (2000). Weather, Seasonal Trends and Property Crimes in Minneapolis, 1987–1988. A Moderator-Variable Time-Series Analysis of Routine Activities. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 20(3), 257–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1986). The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Coupe, T., & Blake, L. (2006). Daylight and Darkness Targeting Strategies and the Risks of Being Seen at Residential Burglaries. Criminology, 44(2), 431–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Curman, A. S. N., Andresen, M. A., & Brantingham, P. J. (2014). Crime and Place: A Longitudinal Examination of Street Segment Patterns in Vancouver, BC. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31(1), 127–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Deryol, R., Wilcox, P., Logan, M., & Wooldredge, J. (2016). Crime Places in Context: An Illustration of the Multilevel Nature of Hot Spot Development. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 32(2), 1–21.Google Scholar
  32. Eck, J., Clarke, R., & Guerette, R. (2007). Risky Facilities: Crime Concentration in Homogeneous Sets of Establishments and Facilities. Crime Prevention Studies, 21, 225–264.Google Scholar
  33. Ekblom, P. (1986). The Prevention of Shop Theft: An Approach Through Crime Analysis. Home Office, Crime Prevention Unit Paper, 5, London.Google Scholar
  34. Ekwall, D. (2009). The Displacement Effect in Cargo Theft. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 39(1), 47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Felson, M. (2006). The Ecosystems for Organized Crime. Helsinki. Retrieved September 26, 2017, from http://www.heuni.fi/material/attachments/heuni/papers/6Ktmwqur9/HEUNI_papers_26.pdf
  36. Felson, M., & Clarke, R. V. (1998). Opportunity Makes the Thief: Practical Theory for Crime Prevention. Police Research Series, Paper 98. Retrieved September 26, 2017, from http://www.popcenter.org/library/reading/PDFs/Thief.pdf
  37. Franka, R., Vahid, D., Reida, A., Singhb, S., Cinnamona, J., & Brantinghama, P. (2011). Power of Criminal Attractors: Modeling the Pull of Activity Nodes. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 14(1). Retrieved November 11, 2017, from http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/14/1/6.html
  38. Gill, M. (Ed.). (1994 (2005)). Crime at Work Vol 1: Studies in Security and Crime Prevention. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  39. Gill, M. (2000). Commercial Robbery: Offenders’ Perspectives on Security and Crime Prevention. London: Perpetuity Press.Google Scholar
  40. Gill, M. (2007). Shop Thieves Around the World. Leicester: Perpetuity Research and Consulting International.Google Scholar
  41. Gill, M., Bilby, C., & Turbin, V. (1999). Retail Security: Understanding What Deters Shop Thieves. Journal of Security Administration, 11(1), 29–38.Google Scholar
  42. GRTB—Global Retail Theft Barometer. (2016). Global Retail Theft Barometer 2014–2015. Retrieved from September 10, 2017, from www.GlobalRetailTheftBarometer.com
  43. Harrell, E. (2011). Workplace Violence 1993–2010: National Crime Victimization Survey and the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, NCJ 233231. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  44. Hayes, R. (2007). Retail Security and Loss Prevention. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hendricks, S. A., Landsittel, D. P., Amandus, H. E., Malcan, J., & Bell, J. (1999). A Matched Case-Control Study of Convenience Store Robbery Risk Factors. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 41(11), 995–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hollinger, R. C., & Adams, A. (2010). National Retail Security Survey Final Report. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from http://soccrim.clas.ufl.edu/criminology/srp/finalreport_2010.pdf
  47. Kajalo, S., & Lindblom, A. (2011). An Empirical Analysis of Retail Entrepreneurs, Approaches to Prevent Shoplifting. Security Journal, 24(4), 269–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Menéndez, P., Tusell, F., & Weatherburn, D. (2017). The Effects of Liquor Licensing Restriction on Alcohol Related Violence in NSW, 2008–13. Addiction, 110, 1574–1582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Newman, O. (1972). Defensible Space–Crime Prevention Through Urban Design. New York: Collier Books.Google Scholar
  50. Pettiway, L. E. (1982). Mobility of Robbery and Burglary Offenders: Ghetto and Nonghetto Spaces. Urban Affairs Review, 18(2), 255–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pixabay. (2017).https://pixabay.com/en/
  52. Poyner, B., & Webb, B. (1995). Reducing Theft from Shopping Bags in City Center Markets. In R. Clarke (Ed.), Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies (pp. 83–89). Albany: Harrow and Heston.Google Scholar
  53. Rengert, G., Groff, E., Eck, J., Braga, A. A., Hureau, D. M., & Papachristos, A. V. (2010). The Relevance of Micro Places to Citywide Robbery Trends: A Longitudinal Analysis of Robbery Incidents at Street Corners and Block Faces in Boston. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(1), 7–32.Google Scholar
  54. Reynald, D. M., & Elffers, H. (2009). The Future of Newman’s Defensible Space Theory: Linking Defensible Space and the Routine Activities of Place. European Journal of Criminology, 6(1), 25–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rossow, I., & Norström, T. (2012). The Impact of Small Changes in Bar Closing Hours on Violence. The Norwegian Experience from 18 Cities. Addiction, 107(3), 530–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Smith, J. (2003). The Nature of Personal Robbery. Home Office Research Study 254. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  57. Swedish Trade Federation. (2015). Svensk Handels Undersökning om Stöldbrott i Butik 2015. Stockholm. Retrieved May 16, 2017, from http://www.svenskhandel.se/verksam-i-handeln/sakerhetscenter/amnesomraden/stolder--snatterier/
  58. Taylor, E. (2016). Supermarket Self-Checkouts and Retail Theft: The Curious Case of the SWIPERS. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 16(5), 552–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tompson, L., & Bowers, K. (2013). A Stab in the Dark? A Research Note on Temporal Patterns of Street Robbery. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50(4), 616–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Van Koppen, P. J., & Jansen, R. W. J. (1999). The Time to Rob: Variations in Time of Number of Commercial Robberies. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36(1), 7–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Van Patten, I. T., McKeldin-Coner, J., & Cox, D. (2009). A Microspatial Analysis of Robbery: Prospective Hot-Spotting in a Small City. Crime Mapping: A Journal of Research and Practice, 1(1), 7–32.Google Scholar
  62. Weisburd, D., & Amram, S. (2014). The Law of Concentrations of Crime at Place: The Case of Tel Aviv-Jaffa. Police Practice and Research, 15(2), 101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wiefel, M., & Gregus, M. (2016). Digitalization: The Consumer in the Digital Age, E-commerce and Asymmetric Information, Chances and Risks for Small and Midsize Companies in the BtoC Retail Business, Doctoral Thesis in Business Management, Corporate Governance, Comenius University in Bratislava, Grin Verlag, Bratislava.Google Scholar
  64. Wingren, S. A. (2014). Dags Att Gå Hem? En Studie om Krogarnas Förändrade Stängningstider och Våldsbrotten i Goteborg, Sverige (Time to Go Home: A Study on the Effect of Pubs Opening Hours and Violence in Gothemburg, Sweden) Examensarbete for Master i kriminologi, Göteborg universitet. Retrieved August 18, 2017, from https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/.../gupea_2077_36038_1.pdf

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vania Ceccato
    • 1
  • Rachel Armitage
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Urban Planning and Built EnvironmentKTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Applied Criminology CentreUniversity of HuddersfieldHuddersfieldUK

Personalised recommendations