Earth: Flat, Hollow or Inside Out?

  • Geoffrey Kirby
Part of the Astronomers' Universe book series (ASTRONOM)


We all agree – don’t we? – that we live on a planet that is broadly spherical and in orbit around a huge Sun, as do all the other planets, asteroids, minor planets and comets. Current evidence on the inner space of our planet indicates that its center is a solid ball of iron-nickel alloy with traces of other metals. The pressure at Earth’s core is about 22,000 tons per square inch and the temperature is about 10,000°F. Normally iron would boil at around 5200°F, but the intense pressure prevents this, and the inner core of Earth remains solid. This solid inner core is surrounded by a vast mass of molten metal composed predominantly of Iron. Between this liquid zone and the outer surface upon which we live are the mantle and crust, stratified layers of metallic and non-metallic chemical compounds.

Notes and Further Reading

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    Gould SJ (1997) The Late Birth Of A Flat Earth – Dinosaur in a Haystack: Reflections in Natural History, Three Rivers Press, New York, pp. 38–50.Google Scholar
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    Ashbrook J (1984) The Astronomical Scrapbook, Cambridge University Press, Chapter 83.Google Scholar
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    Tucker SD (2017) Space Oddities: Our Strange Attempts to Explain the Universe, Amberley Publishing (UK), p. 39.Google Scholar
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    Newitt et al. (2009) Location of the North Magnetic Pole in April 2007, Earth Planets Space, 61, 703–710, 2009 (Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.)Google Scholar
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    Nash G (2017) When the Earth Was Flat: All of the Bits Science Got Wrong, Michael O’Mara Books Ltd. London, pp. 155–162.Google Scholar
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    Moore P Can You Speak Venusian? David and Charles publishers UK, 1972.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geoffrey Kirby
    • 1
  1. 1.WeymouthUK

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