Advertisement

Mangrove Establishment in an Artificially Constructed Estuarine Channel, Sungei Api-Api, Singapore

  • Suzanna Ramos
  • Patrick A. Hesp
Chapter
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 25)

Abstract

The artificial establishment and natural regeneration of mangroves at Sungei Api-Api, a man-made estuarine channel on the north eastern coast of Singapore, is examined. Several environmental factors affecting mangrove growth are briefly detailed, including: (i) slope gradients, (ii) salinity and tidal inundation levels, (iii) substrate type, and other factors such as tidal currents and propagule establishment. An analysis of the environmental factors affecting Sungei Api-Api mangrove growth indicates that successful growth is attained where: (i) fully saline, tidal inundation occurs over low slopes and (ii) the substrate comprises fine sediments. The artificial establishment of mangroves in a man-made channel is shown to be moderately successful in this area. The Sungei Api-Api trial project provides an excellent example of a potentially significant method by which mangroves can be conserved and reintroduced in urban and near urban tropical environments.

Keywords

Mangrove re-establishment Conservation Singapore Urban canals/channels 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was conducted while the authors were at the Dept. of Geography at the National University of Singapore. Thanks to Dr. Mike Hilton (Otago University) who provided the original idea and impetus (including the provision of the magnificent research vessel, the RV Hiltonia) for the study. The authors wish to thank the Dept. of Geography and NUS, the Singapore Housing and Development Board, and the Drainage Dept. within the Ministry of Environment for their support. We also sincerely thank Dr. Chang Chew Hung (Nanyang Technological University) for his invaluable assistance, and Karen Puklowski (Massey University) for cartography.

References

  1. Alongi DM (2015) The impact of climate change on mangrove forests. Curr Clim Chang Rep 1(1):30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chew SY; Ho SK; Wong PP, Leong YY (1987) Beach development between headland breakwaters in a low wave energy environment, Pasir Ris, Singapore. In: Proceedings of the 20th coastal engineering conference:1016–1031Google Scholar
  3. Chou LM, Lee SK (1994) Conservation of marine coastal ecosystems in Singapore, ASAIHL seminar on Sustainable Development of Tropical Marine and Coastal Ecosystems, PenangGoogle Scholar
  4. Duke NC, Meynecke JO, Dittmann S et al (2007) A world without mangroves? Science 317(5834):41–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. English S, Wilkinson C, Baker V (eds) (1994) Survey manual for tropical marine resources. ASEAN-Australia marine Science Project, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  6. Friess DA, Webb EL (2014) Variability in mangrove change estimates and implications for the assessment of ecosystem service provision. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 23(7):715–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Godoy MD, Lacerda LDD (2015) Mangroves response to climate change: a review of recent findings on mangrove extension and distribution. An Acad Bras Cienc 87(2):651–667CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gupta A, Pitts J (eds) (1992) Physical adjustments in a changing landscape: the Singapore story. Singapore University Press, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  9. Hesp PA (1995) The environmental impact assessment process in Singapore with particular respect to coastal environments and the role of NGO’s. J Coast Conserv 1:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hilton MJ, Manning S (1995) Conversion of coastal habitats in Singapore: indications of unsustainable development. Environ Conserv 22(4):307–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Karim A, Hossain Z, White KJ (1984) Study of the growth of mangrove plants in relation to edaphic factors in coastal afforestation plantation of Chittagong. In: Soepadmo E, Rao AN, Macintosh DJ (eds) Proceedings of the Asian symposium on mangrove environment research and management. University of Malaya, Malaysia, pp 195–198Google Scholar
  12. Keng G (1986) Estuarine systems: a systems approach, vol 1. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  13. Lear R, Turner T (1977) Mangroves of Australia. University of Queensland Press, St. LuciaGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee SK (1976) Problems of tree growth on reclaimed land in Singapore. In: Proceedings of symposium on our environment, Singapore, Institute of Natural Science, Nayang University, pp 76–80Google Scholar
  15. Lee SK, Chua SE (1985) Creation of parks on reclaimed land in Singapore. In: Proceedings of 3rd symposium on our environment, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore: 43–51Google Scholar
  16. Lee SK, Goh KC, Yee SO (1993) Afforestation as an interim measure to improve reclaimed lands in Singapore. Land Degrad Rehabil 4:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McNae W (1968) A general account of the flora and fauna of mangrove swamps and forests in the Indo-West Pacific Region. Adv Mar Biol 6:73–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Raj SJ (1995) The management of mangroves in an urban environment: a case study of Sungei Api-Api. Unpublished honours thesis, Department of Geography, National University of SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  19. Richards DR, Friess DA (2016) Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000–2012. PNAS 113(2):364–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Siddiq NZ, Khan MAS (1990) Growth performance of mangrove trees along the coastal belt of Bangladesh (Part I). In: Field CD (ed) Mangrove ecosystems occasional papers, No. 8. United Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, New Delhi, pp 5–14Google Scholar
  21. Turner IM, Tan HTW, Wee YC et al (1994) A study of plant species extinction in Singapore: lessions for the conservation of tropical biodiversity. Conserv Biol 8(3):705–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Valiela I, Bowen JL, York JK (2001) Mangrove forests: one of the world’s threatened major tropical environments. Bioscience 51(10):807–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ward RD, Friess DA, Day RH, MacKenzie RA (2016) Impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems: a region by region overview. Ecosyst Health Sustain 2(4)Google Scholar
  24. Woodroffe C (1992) Mangrove sediments and geomorphology. In: Robertson AI, Alongi DM (eds) Coastal and estuarine studies: tropical mangrove ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 7–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyCollege of Education and Human Development, Texas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Beach and Dune Systems (BEADS) Laboratory, College of Science and Engineering, Bedford ParkFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations