Advertisement

Abdominal Trauma

  • Goran Augustin
Chapter

Abstract

Abdominal trauma is one of the most complex scenarios in emergency abdominal surgery during pregnancy. General classification on blunt and penetrating trauma helps in the diagnostic pathway and therapeutic management. Penetrating trauma most commonly includes growing uterus and the fetus which act as a shield for maternal intra-abdominal organs. In such cases, especially stab wounds, the maternal outcome is excellent. The fetal outcome depends on the underlying fetal, amniotic, and uterine injuries. Significant injury to abdominal organs after blunt trauma is more difficult to diagnose and treat. All maternal abdominal organs could be injured, and injuries are sometimes difficult to diagnose early, especially when clinicians are reluctant to use abdominal CT during pregnancy. Blunt abdominal trauma carries a risk of injury to both reproductive organs (uterine rupture, placental abruption) and digestive tract (hepatic or splenic rupture, intestinal perforation). Therefore, interdisciplinary approach which includes an abdominal surgeon and a gynecologist during diagnostic workup, as well as therapeutic management, is critical to optimize maternal and fetal outcome.

References

  1. 1.
    Barraco RD, Chiu WC, Clancy T, et al. Practice management guidelines for the diagnosis and management of injury in the pregnant patient: the EAST practice management guidelines work group. J Trauma. 2010;69:211–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bard MR, Shaikh S, Pestaner J, et al. Direct fetal injury due to airbag deployment and three-point restraint. J Trauma. 2009;67:98–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weiss HB, Sauber-Schatz EK, Cook LJ. The epidemiology of pregnancy-associated emergency department injury visits and their impact on birth outcomes. Accid Anal Prev. 2008;40:1088–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shah KH, Simons RK, Holbrook T, et al. Trauma in pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcomes. J Trauma. 1998;45:83–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vivian-Taylor J, Roberts CL, Chen JS, et al. Motor vehicle accidents during pregnancy: a population-based study. BJOG. 2012;119:499–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    El-Kady D, Gilbert WM, Anderson J, et al. Trauma during pregnancy: an analysis of maternal and fetal outcomes in a large population. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190:1661–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pearlman MD, Tintinalli JE, Lorenz R. Blunt trauma during pregnancy. New Engl J Med. 1990;323:1609–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fildes J, Reed L, Jones N, et al. Trauma: the leading cause of maternal death. J Trauma. 1992;32:643.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mendez-Figueroa H, Dahlke JD, Vrees RA, et al. Trauma in pregnancy: an updated systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;209:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weiss HB, Strotmeyer S. Characteristics of pregnant women in motor vehicle crashes. Inj Prev. 2002;8:207–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Azar T, Longo C, Oddy L, et al. Motor vehicle collision-related accidents in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2015;41:1370–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ikossi DG, Lazar AA, Morabito D, et al. Profile of mothers at risk: an analysis of injury and pregnancy loss in 1,195 trauma patients. J Am Coll Surg. 2005;200:49–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Connolly AM, Katz VL, Bash K, et al. Trauma and pregnancy. Am J Perinatol. 1997;14:331–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lavery JP, Staten-McCormick M. Management of moderate to severe trauma in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1995;22:69–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rogers FB, Rozycki GS, Osler T, et al. A multiinstitutional study of factors associated with fetal death in injured pregnant patients. Arch Surg. 1999;134:1274–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vaizey CJ, Jacobson MJ, Cross F. Trauma in pregnancy. Br J Surg. 1994;81:1406–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kuhlmann RD, Cruikshank D. Maternal trauma during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1994;37:274–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jacob S, Bloebaum L, Shah G, Varner M. Maternal mortality in Utah. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;91:187–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tinker SC, Reefhuis J, Dellinger AM, et al. Epidemiology of maternal injuries during pregnancy in a population-based study, 1997–2005. J Womens Health. 2010;19:2211–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nannini A, Lazar J, Berg C, et al. Injury: a major cause of pregnancy-associated morbidity in Massachusetts. J Midwifery Womens Heal. 2008;53:3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Timms MR, Boyd CR, Gongaware R. Blunt and penetrating trauma during pregnancy: four cases. J Med Assoc Ga. 1985;74:158–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Timberlake GA, McSwain NJ. Trauma in pregnancy: a 10-year perspective. Am Surg. 1989;55:151–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mendez-Figueroa H, Dahlke JD, Vrees RA, et al. Trauma in pregnancy: an updated systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;209:1–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mattox KL, Goetzl L. Trauma in pregnancy. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:S385–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Poole GV, Martin JNJ, Perry KGJ, et al. Trauma in pregnancy: the role of interpersonal violence. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;176:1873–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Patteson SK, Snider CC, Meyer DS, et al. The consequences of high-risk behaviors: trauma during pregnancy. J Trauma. 2007;62:1015–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schiff MA, Holt VL. Pregnancy outcomes following hospitalization for motor vehicle crashes in Washington state from 1989 to 2001. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;161:503–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tinker SC, Reefhuis J, Dellinger AM, et al. Maternal injuries during the periconceptional period and the risk of birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2011;25:487–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weiss H. Pregnancy associated injury hospitalizations in Pennsylvania, 1995. Ann Emerg Med. 1999;34:626–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tinker SC, Reefhuis J, Dellinger AM, et al. Epidemiology of maternal injuries during pregnancy in a population-based study, 1997–2005. J Women’s Heal. 2010;19:2211–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Weiss H, Sauber-Schatz E. The risk of motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy in Pennsylvania 2002–2005: ramifications for other states. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburgh Department of Neurological Surgery; 2009. p. 1–18.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Drost TF, Rosemurgy AS, Sherman HF, et al. Major trauma in pregnant women: maternal/fetal outcome. J Trauma. 1990;30:574–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Curet MJ, Schermer CR, Demarest G, et al. Predictors of outcome in trauma during pregnancy: identification of patients who can be monitored for less than 6 hours. J Trauma. 2000;49:18–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Esposito TJ, Gens DR, Smith L, et al. Trauma during pregnancy. A review of 79 cases. Arch Surg. 1991;126:1073–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Scorpio RJ, Esposito TJ, Smith LG, et al. Blunt trauma during pregnancy: factors affecting fetal outcome. J Trauma. 1992;32:213–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dahmus M, Sibai B. Blunt abdominal trauma: are there any predictive factors for abruption placentae or maternal-fetal distress? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;169:1054–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pearlman MD, Klinich KD, Schneider L, et al. A comprehensive program to improve safety for pregnant women and fetuses in motor vehicle crashes: a preliminary report. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182:1554–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hyde LK, Cook LJ, Olson L, et al. Effect of motor vehicle crashes on adverse fetal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102:279–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Taylor AJ, McGwin G Jr, Sharp C, et al. Seatbelt use during pregnancy: a comparison of women in two prenatal care settings. Matern Child Heal J. 2005;9:173–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wolf ME, Alexander BH, Rivara F, et al. A retrospective cohort study of seatbelt use and pregnancy outcome after a motor vehicle crash. J Trauma. 1993;34:116–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rose PG, Strohm MT, Zuspan F. Fetomaternal haemorrhage following trauma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985;153:844–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Guth AA, Pachter HL. Domestic violence and the trauma surgeon. Am J Surg. 2000;179:134–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hedin LW, Janson P. Domestic violence during pregnancy. The prevalence of physical injuries, substance use, abortions and miscarriages. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000;79:625–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fisher M, Rivkind A. Trauma in pregnancy. Harefuah. 2004;143:733–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Coleman MT, Trianfo VA, Rund D. Nonobstetric emergencies in pregnancy: trauma and surgical conditions. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;177:497–502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Baerga-Varela Y, Zietlow SP, Bannon M, et al. Trauma in pregnancy. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000;75:1243–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
    Buchbaum H. Accidental injury complicating pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1968;102:752–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tsuei B. Assessment of the pregnant trauma patient. Injury. 2006;37:367–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pearlman M. Motor vehicle crashes, pregnancy loss and preterm labor. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1997;57:127–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kissinger DP, Rozycki GS, Morris JA Jr, et al. Trauma in pregnancy. Predicting pregnancy outcome. Arch Surg. 1991;126:1079–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chulu A, Kuczkowski K. Anaesthetic management of the parturient with massive peripartum haemorrhage and fetal demise. Anaesthesia. 2003;58:933–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Romney SL, Gabel PV, Takeda Y. Experimental hemorrhage in late pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1963;87:636–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hoff WS, D’Amelio LF, Tinkoff GH, et al. Maternal predictors of fetal demise in trauma during pregnancy. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1991;172:175–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wilkening RB, Meschia G. Fetal oxygen uptake, oxygenation, and acid-base balance as a function of uterine blood flow. Am J Phys. 1983;244:H749–55.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wardrop CA, Holland B. The roles and vital importance of placental blood to the newborn infant. J Perinat Med. 1995;23:139–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sebring ES, Polesky H. Fetomaternal hemorrhage: incidence, risk factors, time of occurrence, and clinical effects. Transfusion. 1990;30:344–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Biankin SA, Arbuckle SM, Graf N. Autopsy findings in a series of five cases of fetomaternal haemorrhages. Pathology. 2003;35:319–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pearlman MD, Tintinallli JE, Lorenz RP. A prospective controlled study of outcome after trauma during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;162:1502–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Esposito TJ, Gens DR, Smith LG, et al. Evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma occurring during pregnancy. J Trauma. 1989;29:1628–32. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. 10th Revision, vol. 41, Occupational Health. 1992, pp. 1–201.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kuebler JF, Jarrar D, Bland KI, et al. Progesterone administration after trauma and hemorrhagic shock improves cardiovascular responses. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:1786–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Knöferl MW, Diodato MD, Angele MK, et al. Do female sex steroids adversely or beneficially affect the depressed immune responses in males after trauma-hemorrhage? Arch Surg. 2000;135:425–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    John PR, Shiozawa A, Haut ER, et al. An assessment of the impact of pregnancy on trauma mortality. Surgery. 2011;149:94–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vanden Hoek TL, Morrison LJ, Shuster M, et al. Part 12: cardiac arrest in special situations: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122:S829–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Link MS, Berkow LC, Kudenchuk PJ, et al. Part 7: adult advanced cardiovascular life support: 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2015;132:S444–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wise A, Clark V. Strategies to manage major obstetric haemorrhage. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2008;21:281–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mercier FJ, Bonnet M-P. Use of clotting factors and other prohemostatic drugs for obstetric hemorrhage. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2010;23:310–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Burtelow M, Riley E, Druzin M, et al. How we treat: management of life-threatening primary postpartum hemorrhage with a standardized massive transfusion protocol. Transfusion. 2007;47:1564–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ketchum L, Hess JR, Hiippala S. Indications for early fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelet transfusion in trauma. J Trauma. 2006;60:S51–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jansen JO, Thomas R, Loudon MA, et al. Damage control resuscitation for patients with major trauma. BMJ. 2009;338:b1778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Borgman MA, Spinella PC, Perkins JG, et al. The ratio of blood products transfused affects mortality in patients receiving massive transfusions at a combat support hospital. J Trauma. 2007;63:805–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kirkman E, Watts S, Hodgetts T, et al. A proactive approach to the coagulopathy of trauma: the rationale and guidelines for treatment. J R Army Med Corps. 2008;153:302–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Thomas D, Wee M, Clyburn P, et al. Blood transfusion and the anaesthetist: management of massive haemorrhage. Anaesthesia. 2010;65:1153–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gunter OL, Ames BK, Isbell J, et al. Optimizing outcomes in damage control resuscitation: identifying blood product ratios associated with improved survival. J Trauma. 2008;65:527–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bomken C, Mathai S, Biss T, et al. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in the management of major obstetric haemorrhage: a case series and a proposed guideline for use. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2009;2009:364843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Goodwin T, Breen M. Pregnancy outcome and fetomaternal hemorrhage after non-catastrophic trauma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;162:665–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rees GAD, Willis BA. Resuscitation in late pregnancy. Anaesthesia. 1988;43:347–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kerr M. The mechanical effects of the gravid uterus in late pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp. 1965;72:513–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kerr MG, Scott DB, Samuel E. Studies of the inferior vena cava in late pregnancy. BMJ. 1964;1:532–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ueland K, Novy MJ, Peterson E, et al. Maternal cardiovascular hemodynamics: IV. The influence of gestational age on the maternal cardiovascular response to posture and exercise. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969;104:856864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sugrue M, Kolkman K. Trauma during pregnancy. Aust J Rural Health. 1999;7:82–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sugrue ME, O’Connor MC, D’Amours S. Trauma during pregnancy. ADF Heal. 2004;5:24–8.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Van Hook J. Trauma in pregnancy (obstetric emergencies). Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2002;45:414–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Attico NB, Smith RJ III, Fitzpatrick M. Automobile safety restraints for pregnant women and children. J Reprod Med. 1986;31:187–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Klinich KD, Schneider LW, Eby B, et al. Seated anthropometry during pregnancy. 1999.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Klinich KD, Schneider LW, Moore JP. Investigations of crashes involving pregnant occupants. Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med. 2000;44:37–55.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    National Center for Statistics and Analysis. U. S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Washington D.C., 1997.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Haapaniemi P. Women’s highway deaths on the rise. Traffic Saf. 1996;96:6–11.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Crosby WM, Snyder RG, Snow CC, et al. Impact injuries in pregnancy. I: experimental studies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1968;101:100–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Snyder RG, Crosby WM, Snow CC, et al. Seat belt injuries in impact. In:Symposium on the prevention of highway injury. Ann Arbor: Highway Safety Institute; 1967.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Elliott M. Vehicular accidents and pregnancy. A N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1966;6:279–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    King AI, Crosby WM, Stout LC, et al. Effects of lap belt and three-point restraints on pregnant baboons subjected to deceleration. Stapp Car Crash J. 1971;15:68–83.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Smith RN, Crosby W. Unpublished observations on labor in the baboon.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rubovits F. Traumatic rupture of the pregnant uterus from seat belt injury. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1964;90:828–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Stapp JP, Taylor ER. Space cabin landing impact vector effects on human physiology. Aerosp Med. 1964;35:1117–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Crosby WM, King AI, Clarke Stout L. Fetal survival following impact: improvement with shoulder harness restraint. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1972;112:1101–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Schiff M, Holt V, Daling J. Pregnancy-associated injury hospitalizations: maternal and fetal outcomes. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2001;15:A29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Beversdorf D. Stress during pregnancy linked to autism. San Diego; 2001.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Carmichael SL, Shaw GM. Maternal life event stress and congenital anomalies. Epidemiology. 2000;11:30–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Weiss HB, Songer TJ, Fabio A. Fetal deaths related to maternal injury. JAMA. 2001;286:1863–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Baethmann M, Kahn T, Lenard HG, et al. Fetal CNS damage after exposure to maternal trauma during pregnancy. Acta Paediatr. 1996;85:1331–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Strigini FAL, Cioni G, Canapicchi R, et al. Fetal intracranial hemorrhage: is minor maternal trauma a possible pathogenetic factor? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001;18:335–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Alexander E, David C. Intrauterine fracture of the infant skull. J Neurosurg. 1969;30:446–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Theurer DE, Kaiser I. Traumatic fetal death without uterine injury. Report of a case. Obstet Gynecol. 1963;21:477–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Fingerhut LA, Annest JL, Baker S, et al. Injury mortality among children and teenagers in the United States, 1993. Inj Prev. 1996;2:93–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Williams JK, McClain L, Rosemurgy AS, et al. Evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma in the third trimester of pregnancy: maternal and fetal considerations. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;75:33–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Duma SM, Moorcroft DM, Gabler H, et al. Analysis of pregnant occupant crash exposure and the potential effectiveness of four-point seatbelts in far side crashes. Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med. 2006;50:187–98.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pearlman MD, Viano D. Automobile crash simulation with the first pregnant crash test dummy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;175:977–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Moorcroft DM, Stitzel JD, Duma GG, et al. Computational model of the pregnant occupant: predicting the risk of injury in automobile crashes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:540–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Duma SM, Moorcroft DM, Stitzel JD, et al. Evaluating pregnant occupant restraints: the effect of local uterine compression on the risk of fetal injury. Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med. 2004;48:103–14. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Huelke DF, Gikas P. Ejection—the leading cause of death in automobile accidents. In:10th Stapp car crash conference. New Mexico: Holloman AFB; 1966. p. 156–81.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lister RD, Milsom B. Car seat belts: an analysis of the injuries sustained by car occupants. Practitioner. 1963;191:332–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lindgren S, Warg E. Seat belts and accident prevention. Practitioner. 1962;188:467–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Garrett JW, Braunstein P. The seat belt syndrome. J Trauma. 1962;2:220–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    American Medical Association Commettee on Medical Aspects of Automotive Safety. JAMA. 1972;221:20.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    ACOG. Automobile passenger restraints for children and pregnant women. ACOG technical bulletin number 151. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1992;37:305–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Howland WJ, Curry JL, Buffington C. Fulcrum fractures of the lumbar spine. JAMA. 1965;93:240–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Duma S, Moorcroft D, Stitzel J, et al. A computational model of the pregnant occupant: effects of restraint usage and occupant position on fetal injury risk. Virginia Tech—Wake For Cent Inj Biomech 2004;05–0367.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Matthews C. Incorrectly used seat belt associated with uterine, rupture following vehicular collision. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1975;121:1115–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    ACOG Educational Bulletin. Obstetric aspects of trauma management. Number 251, September 1998. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1999;64:87–94.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
  123. 123.
    Sirin H, Weiss HB, Sauber-Schatz EK, et al. Seat belt use, counseling and motor-vehicle injury during pregnancy: results from a multi-state population-based survey. Matern Child Health J. 2007;11:505–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Schoenfeld A, Ziv E, Stein L, et al. Seat belts in pregnancy and the obstetrician. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1987;42:275–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Astarita DC, Feldman B. Seat belt placement resulting in uterine rupture. J Trauma. 1997;42:738–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    McGwin G, Willey P, Ware A, et al. A focused educational intervention can promote the proper application of seat belts during pregnancy. J Trauma. 2004;56:1016–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    McGwin GJ, Russell SR, Rux RL, et al. Knowledge, beliefs, and practices concerning seat belt use during pregnancy. J Trauma. 2004;56:670–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Beck LF, Gilbert BC, Shults RA. Prevalence of seat belt use among reproductive-aged women and prenatal counseling to wear seat belts. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:580–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lam WC, To WW, Ma E. Seatbelt use by pregnant women: a survey of knowledge and practice in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Med J. 2016;22:420–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Petersen R, Connelly A, Martin SL, et al. Preventive counseling during prenatal care: pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS). Am J Prev Med. 2001;20:245–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Tyroch AH, Kaups KL, Rohan J, et al. Pregnant women and car restraints: beliefs and practices. J Trauma. 1999;46:241–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Passman C, McGwin G Jr, Taylor AJ, et al. Seat belt use before and after motor vehicle trauma. J Trauma. 2001;51:105–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Pearlman MD, Phillips ME. Safety belt use during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;88:1026–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Johnson HC, Pring DW. Car seatbelts in pregnancy: the practice and knowledge of pregnant women remain causes for concern. BJOG. 2000;107:644–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Crosby WM, Costiloe J. Safety of lap-belt restraint for pregnant victims of automobile collisions. New Engl J Med. 1971;284:632–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Klinich KDS, Flannagan CAC, Rupp JD, et al.  Fetal outcome in motor-vehicle crashes: effects of crash characteristics and maternal restraint. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:450.e1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Schiff MA, Holt VL, Daling JR. Maternal and infant outcomes after injury during pregnancy in Washington state from 1989 to 1997. J Trauma. 2002;53:939–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Schiff M, Kasnic T, Reiff K, et al. Seat belt use during pregnancy. West J Med. 1992;156:655–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Reinfurt D, Williams A, Wells J, et al. Characteristics of drivers not using seat belts in a high belt use state. J Saf Res. 1996;27:209–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Chliaoutakis JE, Gnardellis C, Drakou I, et al. Modelling the factors related to the seatbelt use by the young drivers of Athens. Accid Anal Prev. 2000;32:815–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Japan Automobile Federation (JAF). Driving during pregnancy. JAF Mate. 2001;39:26–7.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Japan Automobile Federation (JAF). Seatbelt use data by prefectures. 2002. http://www.jaf.or.jp/e/
  143. 143.
    Ichikawa M, Nakahara S, Okubo T, et al. Car seatbelt use during pregnancy in Japan: determinants and policy implications. Inj Prev. 2003;9:169–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Moorcroft DM, Duma SM, Stitzel JD, et al. The effect of pregnant occupant position and belt placement on the risk of fetal injury. 2004.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Sims CJ, Boardman CH, Fuller S. Airbag deployment following a motor vehicle accident in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;88:726.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Karimi P, Ramus R, Urban J, et al. Extensive brain injury in a premature infant following a relatively minor maternal motor vehicle accident with airbag deployment. J Perinatol. 2004;24:454–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Schultze PM, Stamm CA, Roger J. Placental abruption and fetal death with airbag deployment in a motor vehicle accident. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;92:719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Moise KJ Jr, Belfort M. Damage control for the obstetric patient. Surg Clin North Am. 1997;77:835–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Leggon R, Wood G, Indeck M. Pelvic fractures in pregnancy: factors influencing maternal and fetal outcomes. J Trauma. 2002;53:796–804.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Golan A, Sandbank O, Teare A. Trauma in late pregnancy. A report of 15 cases. S Afr Med J. 1980;57:161–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hirst JC, Wachs C. Labor injuries to the coccyx and their treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1924;7:199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Stafford PA, Biddinger PW, Zumwalt RE. Lethal intrauterine fetal trauma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988;159:485–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Pape HC, Pohlemann T, Gansslen A, et al. Pelvic fractures in pregnant multiple trauma patients. J Orthop Trauma. 2000;14:238–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Atlanta; 2009.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al. Williams obstetrics 24th Edition. 2014.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Dunning K, LeMasters G, Levin L, et al. Falls in workers during pregnancy: risk factors, job hazards, and high risk occupations. Am J Ind Med. 2003;44:664–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Schiff MA. Pregnancy outcomes following hospitalisation for a fall in Washington state from 1987 to 2004. BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;115:1648–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Campbell J. If I can’t have you no one can. Murder linked to battery during pregnancy. Reflections. 1999;Third Quar:8–14.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kaslow NJ, Thompson MP, Meadows L, et al. Factors that mediate and moderate the link between partner abuse and suicidal behavior in African American women. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998;66:533–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Savona-Ventura C, Savona-Ventura M, Drengsted-Nielsen S, et al. Domestic abuse in a central Mediterranean pregnant population. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001;98:3–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Arslantas H, Adana F, Ergin F, et al. Domestic violence during pregnancy in an eastern city of Turkey: a field study. J Interpers Violence. 2012;27:1293–313.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Johnson JK, Haider F, Ellis K, et al. The prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women. BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;110:272–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Devries KM, Kishor S, Johnson H, et al. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: analysis of prevalence data from 19 countries. Reprod Health Matters. 2010;18:158–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Parker B, McFarlane J, Soeken K. Abuse during pregnancy: effects on maternal complications and birth weight in adult and teenage women. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;84:323–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    McFarlane J, Parker B, Soeken K, et al. Assessing for abuse during pregnancy: severity and frequency of injuries and associated entry into prenatal care. JAMA. 1992;267:3176–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Pak LL, Reece EA, Chan L. Is adverse pregnancy outcome predictable after blunt abdominal trauma? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179:1140–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Granja A, Machungo F, Gomes A, et al. Adolescent maternal mortality in Mozambique. J Adol Heal. 2001;28:303–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Ronsmans C, Khlat M. Adolescence and risk of violent death during pregnancy in Matlab, Bangladesh. Lancet. 1999;354:1448.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Bhatt R. Domestic violence and substance abuse. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1998;63:S25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Parsons LH, Harper M. Violent maternal deaths in North Carolina. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;94:990–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Melamed N, Aviram A, Silver M, et al. Pregnancy course and outcome following blunt trauma. J Matern Neonatal Med. 2012;25:1612–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    McFarlane J, Parker B, Soeken K. Abuse during pregnancy: associations with maternal health and infant birth weight. Nurs Res. 1996;45:37–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Curry MA, Perrin N, Wall E. Effects of abuse on maternal complications and birth weight in adult and adolescent women. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;92:530–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Fernandez FM, Krueger PM. Domestic violence: effect on pregnancy outcome. J Am Osteopat Assoc. 1999;99:254–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Berenson AB, Wiemann CM, Wilkinson GS, et al. Perinatal morbidity associated with violence experienced by pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;170:1760–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Dye TD, Tollivert NJ, Lee RV, et al. Violence, pregnancy and birth outcome in Appalachia. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1995;9:35–47.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Amaro H, Fried LE, Cabral H, et al. Violence during pregnancy and substance use. Am J Public Heal. 1990;80:575–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Campbell J, Torres S, Ryan J, et al. Physical and nonphysical partner abuse and other risk factors for low birth weight among full term and preterm babies: a multiethnic case-control study. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:714–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Lane PL. Traumatic fetal deaths. J Emerg Med. 1989;7:433–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Jacobson M, Mitchell R. Trauma to the pregnant abdomen in pregnancy. S Afr J Surg. 1983;21:71–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Howard BK, Goodson J. Experimental placental abruption. Obstet Gynecol. 1953;2:442–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Mengert WF, Goodson JH, Campbell RG, et al. Observations on the pathogenesis of premature separation of the normally implanted placenta. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1953;66:1104–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Reis PM, Sander CM, Pearlman MD. Abruptio placentae after auto accidents. A case-control study. J Reprod Med. 2000;45:6–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Crosby W. Trauma during pregnancy: maternal and fetal injury. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1974;29:683–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Nolan TE, Smith RP, Devoe LD. A rapid test for abruptio placentae: evaluation of a D-dimer latex agglutination slide test. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;169:265–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Dhanraj D, Lambers D. The incidences of positive Kleinhauer-Betke test in low-risk pregnancies and maternal trauma patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190:1461–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Pearlman MD, Tintinalli JE. Evaluation and treatment of the gravida and fetus following trauma during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am. 1990;18:371–81.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    VanSante T. En geval van intra-uterine placentaverscheuring door ietsel. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1942;86:2848.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Peyser MR, Toaff R. Traumatic rupture of the placenta. A rare cause of fetal death. Obstet Gynecol. 1969;34:561–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Stuart GC, Harding PG, Davies E. Blunt abdominal trauma in pregnancy. CMAJ. 1980;122:901–5.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Parkinson E. Perinatal loss due to external trauma to the uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1964;90:30–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Connor E, Curran J. In utero traumatic intraabdominal deceleration injury to the fetus—a case report. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1976;125:567–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Reginald PW, Siddall-Allum JN, Hughes JH, et al. Splenic rupture in utero following a road traffic accident. Case report. BJOG. 1991;98:318–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Lazard EM, Kliman F. Traumatic rupture of the uterus in advanced pregnancy. Calif West Med. 1936;45:482–5.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Elias M. Rupture of the pregnant uterus by external violence. Lancet. 1950;2:253–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Orthner. Munch Med Wochenschr. 1933.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ruder, GS, Moore C. Traumatic rupture of an early pregnant uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1935.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Weir LF, Pierce BT, Vazquez J. Complete fetal transection after a motor vehicle collision. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111:530–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Fusco A, Kelly K, Winslow J. Uterine rupture in a motor vehicle crash with airbag deployment. J Trauma. 2001;51:1192–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    van der Meij W, Boogaard G. Traffic accident at the end of pregnancy. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2009;153:618–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Thomson W. Traumatic avulsion of the uterus in a four-months pregnancy. JAMA. 1966;196:597–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Benijts G, Amy JJ, de Roose J. Traumatic avulsion of the pregnant uterus. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1975;5:305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    El-Kady D, Gilbert WM, Xing G, et al. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of assaults during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105:357–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Sisay Woldeyes W, Amenu D, et al. Uterine rupture in pregnancy following fall from a motorcycle: a horrid accident in pregnancy—a case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2015;2015:715180.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Rowe TF, Lafayette S, Cox S. An unusual fetal complication of traumatic uterine rupture. J Emerg Med. 1996;14:173–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    van Enk A, van Zwam V. Uterine rupture. A seat belt hazard. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1994;73:432–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Vaysse C, Mignot F, Benezech JP, et al. Traumatic uterine rupture: a rare complication of motor vehicle accidents during pregnancy. A case report. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod. 2007;36:611–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Coutts D. Fœtus removed from mother’s thigh following rupture of the uterus. Proc R Soc Med. 1936;29:308–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Schrinsky DC, Benson R. Rupture of the pregnant uterus: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1978;33:217–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Agran P, Dunkle D, Winn D, et al. Fetal death in motor vehicle accidents. Ann Emerg Med. 1987;16:1355–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Eden RD, Parker RT, Gall S. Rupture of the pregnant uterus: a 53-year review. Obstet Gynecol. 1986;68:671–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Moore EE, Jurkovich GJ, Knudson M, et al. Organ injury scaling. VI: extrahepatic biliary, esophagus, stomach, vulva, vagina, uterus (nonpregnant), uterus (pregnant), fallopian tube, and ovary. J Trauma. 1995;39:1069–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Onwudiegwu U, Okonofua FE, Omole-Ohonsi A. Rupture of the gravid uterus following a road traffic accident. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1990;33:273–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Wylie BJ, D’Alton ME. Fetomaternal hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115:1039–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Stroustrup A, Plafkin C, Savitz D. Impact of physician awareness on diagnosis of fetomaternal hemorrhage. Neonatology. 2014;105:250–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Maier JT, Schalinski E, Schneider W, et al. Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH), an update: review of literature and an illustrative case. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015;292:595–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Davis BH, Olsen S, Bigelow NC, et al. Detection of fetal red cells in fetomaternal hemorrhage using a fetal hemoglobin monoclonal antibody by flow cytometry. Transfusion. 1998;38:749–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Kim YA, Makar RS. Detection of fetomaternal hemorrhage. Am J Hematol. 2012;87:417–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Mollison PL. Clinical aspects of Rh immunization. Am J Clin Pathol. 1973;60:287–301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Doll R, Wakeford R. Risk of childhood cancer from fetal irradiation. Br J Radiol. 1997;70:130–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Klumper FJ, Van Kamp IL, Vandenbussche FPHA, et al. Benefits and risks of fetal red-cell transfusion after 32 weeks gestation. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000;92:91–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Lindenburg ITM, Van Kamp IL, Oepkes D. Intrauterine blood transfusion: current indications and associated risks. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2014;36:263–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Oyelese KO, Turner M, Lees C, et al. Vasa previa: an avoidable obstetric tragedy. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1999;54:138–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Akhter MS, Savior JF, Akhter IA, et al. Fetal exsanguination associated with antepartum hemorrhage. Can Med Assoc J. 1978;118:651–2, 657PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Cahill AG, Bastek JA, Stamilio D, et al. Minor trauma in pregnancy—is the evaluation unwarranted? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:208.e1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Kecskes Z. Large fetomaternal hemorrhage: clinical presentation and outcome. J Matern Neonatal Med. 2003;13:128–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    de Almeida V, Bowman JM. Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage: manitoba experience. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;83:323–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Steiner PE, Lushbaugh C. Maternal pulmonary embolism by amniotic fluid as a cause of obstetric shock and unexpected deaths in obstetrics. JAMA. 1941;117:1245–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Olcott C IV, Robinson AJ, Maxwell TM, et al. Amniotic fluid embolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation after blunt abdominal trauma. J Trauma. 1973;13:737–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Judich A, Kuriansky J, Engelberg I, et al. Amniotic fluid embolism following blunt abdominal trauma in pregnancy. Injury. 1998;29:475–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Rainio J, Penttilä A. Amniotic fluid embolism as cause of death in a car accident—a case report. Forensic Sci Int. 2003;137:231–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Pluymakers C, De Weerdt A, Jacquemyn Y, et al. Amniotic fluid embolism after surgical trauma: two case reports and review of the literature. Resuscitation. 2007;72:324–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Ellingsen CL, Eggebø TM, Lexow K. Amniotic fluid embolism after blunt abdominal trauma. Resuscitation. 2007;75:180–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Davies S. Amniotic fluid embolus: a review of the literature. Can J Anesth Can d’anesthésie. 2001;48:88–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Moore J, Baldisseri MR. Amniotic fluid embolism. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:S279–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Dunham CM, Watson LA, Cooper C. Base deficit level indicating major injury is increased with ethanol. J Emerg Med. 2000;18:165–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Mofidi M, Hasani A, Kianmehr N. Determining the accuracy of base deficit in diagnosis of intra-abdominal injury in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Am J Emerg Med. 2010;28:933–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Pearl WS, Todd KH. Ultrasonography for the initial evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma: a review of prospective trials. Ann Emerg Med. 1996;27:353–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Bochicchio GV, Napolitano LM, Haan J, et al. Incidental pregnancy in trauma patients. J Am Coll Surg. 2001;192:566–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Patel SJ, Reede DL, Katz DS, et al. Imaging the pregnant patient for nonobstetric conditions: algorithms and radiation dose considerations. Radiographics. 2007;27:1705–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Ballesteros R, Ruiz MA, Del Rio J. Traumatic rupture of the symphysis pubis during pregnancy that needed an emergency caesarean section and pelvis reconstruction: a case report. Inj Extra. 2008;39:320–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Richards JR, Ormsby EL, Romo MV, et al. Blunt abdominal injury in the pregnant patient: detection with US. Radiology. 2004;233:463–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Miller MT, Pasquale MD, Bromberg WJ, et al. Not so FAST. J Trauma. 2003;54:52–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Goodwin H, Holmes JF, Wisner DH. Abdominal ultrasound examination in pregnant blunt trauma patients. J Trauma. 2001;50:689–93. Discussion 694.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Davis JA, Gosink BB. Fluid in the female pelvis: cyclic patterns. J Ultrasound Med. 1986;5:75–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Donnez J, Langerock S, Thomas K. Peritoneal fluid volume and 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone concentrations in ovulatory, anovulatory, and postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol. 1982;59:687–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Koninckx PR, Renaer M, Brosens IA. Origin of peritoneal fluid in women: an ovarian exudation product. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1980;87:177–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Nichols JE, Steinkampf MP. Detection of free peritoneal fluid by transvaginal sonography. J Clin Ultrasound. 1993;21:171–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Steinkampf MP, Blackwell RE, Younger JB. Visualization of free peritoneal fluid with transvaginal sonography. A preliminary study. J Reprod Med. 1991;36:729–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Halme J, Hammond MG, Hulka JF, et al. Retrograde menstruation in healthy women and in patients with endometriosis. Obstet. 1984;64:151–4.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Ormsby EL, Geng J, McGahan JP, et al. Pelvic free fluid: clinical importance for reproductive age women with blunt abdominal trauma. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2005;26:271–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Sirlin CB, Casola G, Brown MA, et al. Patterns of fluid accumulation on screening ultrasonography for blunt abdominal trauma: comparison with site of injury. J Ultrasound Med. 2001;20:351–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Sirlin CB, Casola G, Brown MA, et al. US of blunt abdominal trauma: importance of free pelvic fluid in women of reproductive age. Radiology. 2001;219:229–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Von Kuenssberg Jehle D, Stiller G, Wagner D. Sensitivity in detecting free intraperitoneal fluid with the pelvic views of the fast exam. Am J Emerg Med. 2003;21:476–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Nyberg DA, Laing FC, Jeffrey RB. Sonographic detection of subtle pelvic fluid collections. Am J Roentgenol. 1984;143:261–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    McGahan JP, Rose J, Coates TL, et al. Use of ultrasonography in the patient with acute abdominal trauma. J Ultrasound Med. 1997;16:653–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Glantz C, Purnell L. Clinical utility of sonography in the diagnosis and treatment of placental abruption. J Ultrasound Med. 2002;21:837–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Zane SB, Kieke BA, Kendrick JS, et al. Surveillance in a time of changing health care practices: estimating ectopic pregnancy incidence in the United States. Matern Child Health J. 2002;6:227–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Rochester D, Panella JS, Port RB, et al. Ectopic pregnancy: surgical-pathologic correlation with US. Radiology. 1987;165:843–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Meyers M. Intraperitoneal spread of infection. In: Meyers M, editor. Dynamic radiology of the abdomen: normal and pathologic anatomy. New York: Springer; 1994. p. 55–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Ma OJ, Mateer JR, DeBehnke DJ. Use of ultrasonography for the evaluation of pregnant trauma patients. J Trauma. 1996;40:665–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Moore EE, Feliciano DV, Mattox K. Trauma. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2017.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Puri A, Khadem P, Ahmed S, et al. Imaging of trauma in a pregnant patient. Semin Ultrasound, CT MRI. 2012;33:37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Urban G, Vergani P, Ghidini A, et al. State of the art: noninvasive ultrasound assessment of the uteroplacental circulation. Semin Perinatol. 2007;31:232–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Civil ID, Talucci RC, Schwab C. Placental laceration and fetal death as a result of blunt abdominal trauma. J Trauma. 1988;28:708–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Dash N, Lupetin A. Uterine rupture secondary to trauma: CT findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1991;15:329–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Lowdermilk C, Gavant ML, Qaisi W, et al. Screening helical CT for evaluation of blunt traumatic injury in the pregnant patient. Radiographics. 1999;19:S243–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Usui R, Matsubara S, Ohkuchi A, et al. Fetal heart rate pattern reflecting the severity of placental abruption. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;277:249–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Wei SH, Helmy M, Cohen A. CT evaluation of placental abruption in pregnant trauma patients. Emerg Radiol. 2009;16:365–73.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Almog G, Liebergall M, Tsafrir A, et al. Management of pelvic fractures during pregnancy. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2007;36:E153–9.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Prowse CM, Gaensler E. Respirator and acid-base changes during pregnancy. Anesthesiology. 1965;26:381–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Jain V, Chari R, Maslovitz S, et al. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant trauma patient. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2015;37:553–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Katz VL. Perimortem cesarean delivery: its role in maternal mortality. Semin Perinatol. 2012;36:68–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Grossman NB. Blunt trauma in pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70:1303–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Romero VC, Pearlman M. Maternal mortality due to trauma. Semin Perinatol. 2012;36:60–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Muench MV, Canterino J. Trauma in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2007;34:555–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Morris JA, Rosenbower TJ, Jurkovich GJ, et al. Infant survival after cesarean section for trauma. Ann Surg. 1996;223:481–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Cullinane DC, Schiller HJ, Zielinski MD, et al. Eastern Association for the Surgery of trauma practice management guidelines for hemorrhage in pelvic fracture—update and systematic review. J Trauma. 2011;71:1850–68.Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Dunlop DJ, McCahill JP, Blakemore M. Internal fixation of an acetabular fracture during pregnancy. Injury. 1997;28:481–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Loegters T, Briem D, Gatzka C, et al. Treatment of unstable fractures of the pelvic ring in pregnancy. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2005;125:204–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Petersen AC, Rasmussen K. External skeletal fixation as treatment for total puerperal rupture of the pubic symphysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1992;71:308–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Pennig D, Gladbach B, Majchrowski W. Disruption of the pelvic ring during spontaneous childbirth. A case report. J Bone Jt Surg. 1997;79:438–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Rommens P. Internal fixation in postpartum symphysis pubis rupture: report of three cases. J Orthop Trauma. 1997;11:273–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Schreiber M. Damage control surgery. Crit Care Clin. 2004;20:101–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Sugrue M, D’Amours SK, Joshipura M. Damage control surgery and the abdomen. Injury. 2004;35:642–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Stone HH, Strom PR, Mullins RJ. Management of the major coagulopathy with onset during laparotomy. Ann Surg. 1983;197:532–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Rotondo MF, Schwab CW, McGonigal MD, et al. “Damage control”: an approach for improved survival in exsanguinating penetrating abdominal injury. J Trauma. 1993;35:373–5.Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Johnson JW, Gracias VH, Gupta R, et al. Hepatic angiography in patients undergoing damage control laparotomy. J Trauma. 2002;52:1102–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Muench MV, Baschat AA, Dorio P, et al. Successful pregnancy outcome after splenic artery embolization for blunt maternal trauma. J Trauma. 2004;56:1146–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Aboutanos SZ, Aboutanos MB, Malhotra AK, et al. Management of a pregnant patient with an open abdomen. J Trauma. 2005;59:1052–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Rasmussen S, Irgens LM, Bergsjo P, et al. Perinatal mortality and case fatality after placental abruption in Norway 1967–1991. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1996;75:229–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Share JC, Pursley D, Teele R. Unsuspected hepatic injury in the neonate—diagnosis by ultrasonography. Pediatr Radiol. 1990;20:320–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Fries MH, Gary Hankins DV. Motor vehicle accident associated with minimal maternal trauma but subsequent fetal demise. Ann Emerg Med. 1989;18:301–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Mulla N. Fractures of the pelvis in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1957;74:246–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Voegelin AW, McCall M. Some acquired bony abnormalities influencing the conduct of labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1944;48:361–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Dyer I, Barclay D. Accidental trauma complicating pregnancy and delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1962;83:907–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    McKay D. Intravascular coagulation: acute and chronic, disseminated and local. Proc Inst Med Chic. 1972;29:159–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Maternal mortality—United States, 1982–1996. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998;47:705–7.Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Chames MC, Pearlman M. Trauma during pregnancy: outcomes and clinical management. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2008;51:398–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Harper M, Parsons L. Maternal deaths due to homicide and other injuries in North Carolina: 1992–1994. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;90:920–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Dannenberg AL, Carter DM, Lawson H, et al. Homicide and other injuries as causes of maternal death in New York City, 1987 through 1991. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172:1557–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Viegas OAC, Wiknsosastro G, Sahagun GH, et al. Safe motherhood needs more than medical services. World Health Forum. 1992;13:59–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Rothenberger D, Quattlebaum FW, Perry JFJ, et al. Blunt maternal trauma: a review of 103 cases. J Trauma. 1978;18:173–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Lavin J, Polsky S. Abdominal trauma during pregnancy. Clin Perinatol. 1983;10:423–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Srinarmwong C. Trauma during pregnancy: a review of 38 cases. TJS. 2007;28:138–42.Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Miller JF, Williamson E, Glue J, et al. Fetal loss after implantation. A prospective study. Lancet. 1980;2:554–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Whittaker PG, Taylor A, Lind T. Unsuspected pregnancy loss in healthy women. Lancet. 1983;321:1126–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Simpson JL, Mills JL, Holmes LB, et al. Low fetal loss rates after ultrasound-proved viability in early pregnancy. JAMA. 1987;258:2555–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Stabile I, Campbell S, Grudzinskas JG. Ultrasonic assessment of complications during first trimester of pregnancy. Lancet. 1987;330:1237–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Ali J, Yeo A, Gana TJ, McLellan BA. Predictors of fetal mortality in pregnant trauma patients. J Trauma. 1997;42:782–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Pearlman M. Management of trauma during pregnancy. Female Patient (Parsippany). 1996;21:79–98.Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    Trivedi N, Ylagan M, Moore TR, et al. Predicting adverse outcomes following trauma in pregnancy. J Reprod Med. 2012;57:3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Tanizaki S, Maeda S, Matano H, et al. Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein after minor trauma during pregnancy may predict adverse fetal outcomes. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014;77:510–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Kvarnstrand L, Milsom I, Lekander T, et al. Maternal fatalities, fetal and neonatal deaths related to motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy: a national population-based study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87:946–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Weiss HB, Lawrence B, Miller T. Prevalence and risk of hospitalized pregnant occupants in car crashes. Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med. 2002;46:355–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Aboutanos MB, Aboutanos SZ, Dompkowski D, et al. Significance of motor vehicle crashes and pelvic injury on fetal mortality: a five-year institutional review. J Trauma. 2008;65:616–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Al Mulhim AS, Balaha MH, Tudiver F. Predictors of fetal demise after trauma in pregnant Saudi Arabian women. East Mediterr Heal J. 2012;18:432–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Schiff MA, Mack CD, Kaufman RP, et al. The effect of air bags on pregnancy outcomes in Washington state: 2002–2005. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115:85–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Runnebaum IB, Holcberg G, Katz M. Pregnancy outcome after repeated blunt abdominal trauma. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1998;80:85–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Petrone P, Talving P, Browder T, et al. Abdominal injuries in pregnancy: a 155-month study at two level 1 trauma centers. Injury. 2011;42:47–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Buchsbaum H. Penetrating injury of the abdomen. In: Buchsbaum H, editor. Trauma in pregnancy. 1st ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1979. p. 82–142.Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    Mighty H. Trauma in pregnancy. Crit Care Clin. 1994;10:623–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Buchsbaum HJ. Diagnosis and management of abdominal gunshot wounds during pregnancy. J Trauma. 1975;15:425–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Reichard. Diseases alle special hygielle of females. Philadelphia: Lea; 1845.Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    Martins CP, Garcia O. Ferimentos do utero gravido por arma de fogo. All Bras Ginec. 1964;58:229.Google Scholar
  326. 326.
    Awwad JT, Azar GB, Seoud MA, et al. High-velocity penetrating wounds of the gravid uterus: review of 16 years of civil war. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;83:259–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Gallo P, Mazza C, Sala F. Intrauterine head stab wound injury resulting in a growing skull fracture: a case report and literature review. Childs Nerv Syst. 2010;26:377–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Geggie N. Gunshot wound of the pregnant uterus with survival of the fetus. CMAJ. 1961;84:489–91.Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Carugno JA, Rodriguez A, Brito J, et al. Gunshot wound to the gravid uterus with non-lethal fetal injury. J Emerg Med. 2008;35:43–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Osei EK, Faulkner K. Fetal doses from radiological examinations. Br J Radiol. 1999;72:773–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Dornan JC, Harper A. Where are we with Doppler? BJOG. 1994;101:190–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Sakala EP, Kort DD. Management of stab wounds to the pregnant uterus: a case report and a review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1988;43:319–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins W, et al. A randomised controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:1405–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Rolbin SH, Levinson G, Shnider S, et al. Dopamine treatment of spinal hypotension decreases uterine blood flow in the pregnant ewe. Anesthesiology. 1979;51:37–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Gilson GJ, Miller AC, Clevenger FW, et al. Acute spinal cord injury and neurogenic shock in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1995;50:556–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Bost T. Gunshot wound of the pregnant uterus. South Med J. 1941;34:1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Eckerling B, Teaff R. Obstetrical approach to abdominal war wounds in late pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp. 1950;57:747–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Shaftan GW. Indications for operation in abdominal trauma. Am J Surg. 1960;99:657–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Iliya FA, Hajj SN, Buchsbaum HJ. Gunshot wounds of the pregnant uterus: report of two cases. J Trauma. 1980;20:90–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Franger AL, Buchsbaum HJ, Peaceman AM. Abdominal gunshot wounds in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;160:1124–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Kobak AJ, Hurwitz C. Gunshot wounds of the pregnant uterus: review of the literature and two case reports. Obstet Gynecol. 1954;4:383–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Moore EE, Moore JB, Van Duzer-Moore S, et al. Mandatory laparotomy for gunshot wounds penetrating the abdomen. Am J Surg. 1980;140:847–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Koback AJ, Hurwitz C. Gunshot wounds of the pregnant uterus. Review of the literature and two case reports. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1954;4:383–90.Google Scholar
  344. 344.
    Forde KA, Ganepola G. Is mandatory exploration for penetrating abdominal trauma extinct? The morbidity and mortality of negative exploration in a large municipal hospital. J Trauma. 1974;14:764–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Lowe RJ, Boyd DR, Folk FA, et al. The negative laparotomy for abdominal trauma. J Trauma. 1972;12:853–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Buchsbaum HJ, Caruso P. Gunshot wound of the pregnant uterus. Case report of fetal injury, deglutition of missile, and survival. Obstet Gynecol. 1969;33:673–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Beattie JF, Daly F. Gunshot wound of the pregnant uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1960;80:772.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Fackler M. Wound ballistics-a review of common misconceptions. JAMA. 1988;259:2730–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Hardaway RI. Vietnam wound analysis. J Trauma. 1978;18:635–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Osnaya-Moreno H, Zaragoza Salas TA, Escoto Gomez J, et al. Gunshot wound to the pregnant uterus: case report. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2013;35:427–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Catanese CA, Gilmore K. Fetal gunshot wound characteristics. J Forensic Sci. 2002;47:1067–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Stone IC, Petty C. Interpretation of unusual wounds caused by firearms. J Forensic Sci. 1991;36:736–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Di Maio V, editor. Gunshot wounds: practical aspects of firearms, ballistics and forensic techniques. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1999.Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    Krey AK, Moshell AN, Dayton D, et al. Morphogenesis and malformations of the skin NICHD/NIADDK research workshop. J Invest Dermatol. 1997;88:464–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    White WJ. Gunshot wound of the gravid uterus; report of a case. J S C Med Assoc. 1962;58:82–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Goff B, Muntz H. Gunshot wounds to the gravid uterus. J Reprod Med. 1990;35:436–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Browns K, Bhat R, Jonasson O, et al. Thoracoabdominal gunshot wound with survival of a 36-week fetus. JAMA. 1977;237:2409–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Young B. Pregnancy in women with paraplegia. Adv Neurol. 1994;64:209–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Grubb D. Nonsurgical management of penetrating uterine trauma in pregnancy: a case report. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;166:583–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Rudloff U. Trauma in pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;276:101–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Kaloo P, Ludlow J, Dickinson JE, et al. Self-inflicted penetrating abdominal injury in pregnancy. A N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000;40:468–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Ueland K, Akamatsu TJ, Eng M, et al. Maternal cardiovascular hemodynamics: IV. Cesarean section under epidural anesthesia without epinephrine. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1972;114:775–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Whitten M, Irvine L. Postmortem and perimortem caesarean section: what are the indications. J R Soc Med. 2000;93:6–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Hillan E. Caesarean section: historical background. Scot Med J. 1991;36:150–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Lurie S. The changing motives of cesarean section: from the ancient world to the twenty-first century. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2005;271:281–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Ritter J. Postmortem cesarean section. JAMA. 1961;175:715–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Estienne C, editor. De dissectione partium corporis humani libri tres. Paris; 1545. p. 260.Google Scholar
  368. 368.
    Katz VL, Dotters DJDW. Perimortem cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 1986;68:571–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Lopez-Zeno JA, Carol WA, O’Grady J, et al. Infant survival following delayed postmortem cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;76:991–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Guneysel O, Yesil O, Ozturk TC, et al. Perimortem caesarean section following maternal gunshot wounds. J Res Med Sci. 2011;16:1089–91.Google Scholar
  371. 371.
    Strong TJ. Perimortem cesarean section. Am J Emerg Med. 1989;7:489–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    DePace NL, Betesh JS, Kotler MN. “Postmortem” cesarean section with recovery of both mother and offspring. J Am Med Assoc. 1982;248:971–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Weber C. Postmortem cesarean section: review of the literature and case reports. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1971;110:158–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Behney C. Cesarean section delivery after death of the mother. JAMA. 1961;176:617–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Molapo J. Postmortem cesarean section. S Afr Med J. 1972;46:98–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Katz V, Balderston K, Defreest M, et al. Perimortem cesarean delivery: were our assumptions correct? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:1916–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    OG P. Trans Am Assoc Obstet Gynecol. 1916;29:42.Google Scholar
  378. 378.
    Allen MC, Donohue PK, Dusman AE. The limit of viability—neonatal outcome of infants born at 22-weeks to 25-weeks gestation. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1597–601.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Committee on Obstetric Practice. Perinatal care at the threshold of viability. Pediatrics. 1995;96:974–6.Google Scholar
  380. 380.
    Depp R. Clinical evaluation of fetal status. In: Scott JR, DiSaia PJ, Hammond CB, Spellacy W, editors. Obstetrics and gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott Co; 1990. p. 315–34.Google Scholar
  381. 381.
    Creasy R, Resnik R, Iams J, et al., editors. Maternal—fetal medicine. Principles and practice. 2007.Google Scholar
  382. 382.
    Dawidson I, Miller E, Litwin MS. Gunshot wounds of the abdomen. A review of 277 cases. Arch Surg. 1976;111:862–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Errando C. La paciente gestante con traumatismo grave. Consideraciones para el médico especialista en anestesiología y reanimación. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2005;52:336–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Sandy E, Koerner M. Self-inflicted gunshot wound to the pregnant abdomen: report of a case and review of the literature. Am J Perinatol. 1989;6:30–1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Wilson F, Gunshot SD. War projectile wounds of the gravid uterus. Case report and review of literature. J Natl Med Assoc. 1972;64:8–13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Leroy-Malherbe V, Bonnier C, Papiernik E, et al. The association between developmental handicaps and traumatic brain injury during pregnancy: an issue that deserves more systematic evaluation. Brain Inj. 2006;20:1355–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Yang W, et al. Maternal stressful life events and risks of birth defects. Epidemiology. 2007;18:356–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Honein MA, Rasmussen SA, Reefhuis J, et al. Maternal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of orofacial clefts. Epidemiology. 2007;18:226–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Clarren SK, Alvord EC, Sumi SM, et al. Brain malformations related to prenatal exposure to ethanol. J Pediatr. 1978;92:64–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Goran Augustin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Medicine University of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity Hospital Centre ZagrebZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations