What Have We Wrought? An Explication of the Consequences of Segregation

  • Catalina Freixas
  • Mark Abbott
Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)


The purpose of this chapter is to identify and elucidate the primary consequences of segregation in America. The research of Wilson (The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1987), Anderson (Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in the Urban Community. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1993/Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1999), Bullard and Johnson (Sprawl City: Race, Politics, and Planning in Atlanta. Island Press, Washington, DC, 2000), Bobo (Locked In and Locked Out: The Impact of Urban Land Use Policy and Market Forces on African Americans. Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT, 2001), Taylor (Toxic Communities: Environmental Racism, Industrial Pollution, and Residential Mobility. New York University Press, New York, 2014), Purnell (For the Sake of All. Washington University in St. Louis, 2015), Kryson and Crowder (The Cycle of Segregation: Social Processes and Residential Segregation. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 2017), and Rooks (Cutting School: Privatization, Segregation, and the End of Public Education. The New Press, New York, 2017) inform the focus group agenda. The main consequences that the literature has identified stemming from segregation include disparities in housing options, wealth accumulation, educational opportunities, and health care access; disproportional crime rates in black communities; intergenerational poverty in low-income black communities; environmental racism; and suburban sprawl. While the participants acknowledged these consequences of segregation for African Americans, the conversation focused on the negative impacts on society, in particular for post-industrial cities like St. Louis. The discussants identified three main regional dysfunctions that segregation has produced. The first is geo-spatial and the acceleration of suburban sprawl. The second is political and the fragmentation of the metropolitan governance. The third is economic and the inability of post-industrial cities to respond to globalization. In the accompanying essay, “Reconciliation Through Art, Culture and Planning: Designing the Equitable, Inclusive and Sustainable City for the Twenty-first Century,” Jasmin Aber suggests that segregation has produced a fourth dysfunction in the American city. She argues that segregation has distorted the culture of the city by denying the value of the African American heritage. She further suggests that the acknowledgment of the value of African American culture may be a way of partially mitigating the effects of segregation.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abramsky S (2013) The American way of poverty: how the other half still lives. Nation Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcindor Y, Bello M (2014) Police in Ferguson ignite debate about military tactics. USA Today. 19 Aug.
  3. Anderson E (1999) Code of the street: decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. W.W. Norton & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson E (1993) Streetwise: race, class, and change in the urban community. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  5. Apartheid (n.d.)
  6. Bartley J (2016) Wellston first aims to reinvent struggling historic inner ring suburb. NextSTL. 6 Dec.
  7. Bell J (2013) Hate thy neighbor: move-in violence and the persistence of racial segregation in American housing. New York University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bivens J (2007) Globalization and American wages: today and tomorrow. Economic Policy Institute. 10 Oct.
  9. Bloom CH (2014) You can’t do that! Bloom, Sluggett, Morgan blog.
  10. Bobo BF (2001) Locked in and locked out: the impact of urban land use policy and market forces on African Americans. Praeger Publishers, Westport, CTGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyle K (2004) Arc of justice: a saga of race, civil rights, and murder in the jazz age. Henry Holt and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
  13. Bryant A (1996) Boeing offering $13 billion to buy McDonnell Douglas, Last U.S. Commercial Rival. The New York Times. 16 Dec.
  14. Bullard R, Johnson GS, Torres AO (eds.) (2000) Sprawl city: race, politics, and planning in Atlanta. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. Caputo RK, Luisa SD (2012) Revisiting William J. Wilson’s the declining significance of race. J Sociol Soc Welf XXXIX (1): 9–10Google Scholar
  16. Central West End (2011) St. Louis city talk. 24 Oct.
  17. Central West End Census Results (2010) City of St. Louis.
  18. City of St. Louis Planning Commission. St. Louis sustainability plan.
  19. Collier B (2006) Layers of government continue to hamper metro-area planning. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 21 Nov.
  20. Cortex Innovation Community (2016) The district.
  21. Cortright J (2017) Here’s what’s wrong with that ‘peak millennials’ story. Citylab. 24 Jan.
  22. Creative Exchange Lab (2017) An art and cultural corridor/district for East St. Louis: vision.
  23. Creative Exchange Lab (2017) ESTL Our Town.
  24. Crouch E (2015) Riverview gardens high leads its district on path to success. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 28 Oct.
  25. Davey M, Julie B (2014) Protests flare after Ferguson police officer is not indicted. The New York Times. 2 Nov.
  26. DeBaliviere S (n.d.) City of St. Louis.
  27. Declaration of Independence: A Transcription (2017) National archives.
  28. Domonoske C (2014) Segregated from its history, how ‘ghetto’ lost its meaning. National Public Radio. 27 Apr.
  29. Douglas MD (n.d.) Encyclopedia Britannica.
  30. Dreier P, Mollenkopf JH, Swanstrom T (2014) Place matters: metropolitics for the twenty-first century, 3rd edn. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, KSGoogle Scholar
  31. East-West Gateway Council of Governments (2016) Water resources.
  32. East-West Gateway Council of Governments (2015a) Where we stand: the strategic assessment of the St. Louis region.
  33. East-West Gateway Council of Governments (2015b) Housing: segregation and homelessness. In: Where we stand, 7th edn., p 45.
  34. East-West Gateway Council of Governments (n.d.) About us.
  35. Edelman P (2017) Not a crime to be poor: The criminalization of poverty in America. The New Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Florida R (2015) Insight: segregated city. 23 Feb.
  37. Economic Policy Institute (2013) Globalization has lowered wages for American workers, New EPI Study Finds. Economic Policy Institute. 22 Mar.
  38. Gordon C (2008a) Mapping decline: St Louis and the fate of the American city. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  39. Gordon C (2008b) Mapping decline: St. Louis and the American city. Hosted by The University of Iowa Libraries.
  40. Grand Center Arts District (2017) Welcome to Grand Center arts district.
  41. Harlan C (2014) In St. Louis, Delmar Boulevard is the line that divides a city by race and perspective. The Washington Post. 22 Aug.
  42. Harvey T et al (2014) Archcity defenders: municipal courts white paper. St. Louis, MO.
  43. Healy J (2014) Ferguson, still tense, grows calmer. The New York Times. 26 Nov.
  44. Ihnen A (2016) Claiming it would “divide us,” stenger opposes north-south rail transit. NextSTL. 20 Jun.
  45. Jencks C (1989) Residential segregation, job proximity, and black job opportunities: the empirical status of the spatial mismatch hypothesis. Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, ILGoogle Scholar
  46. Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University (2017) Improving America’s housing 2017: demographic change and remodeling outlook. Harvard Graduate School of Design and Harvard Kennedy School.
  47. Kelley RDG (1998) Yo’ mama’s disfunktional!: fighting the culture wars in urban America. Beacon Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  48. Krueger A (2017) In the South and North, new (and vital) civil rights trails. The New York Times. 28 Nov.
  49. Krysan M, Crowder K (2017) The cycle of segregation: social processes and residential segregation. Russell Sage Foundation, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ladue School District Rankings (2018) Niche.
  51. Lee BA (2015) The annals of the American academy of political and social science: special issue: residential inequality in American neighborhoods and communities. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  52. Lucas P (2004) Campbell house museum.
  53. Lumpkins CL (2008) An American pogrom: the east St. Louis race riots and black politics. Ohio University Press, Athens, OHGoogle Scholar
  54. Maheshwari T (2013) Redefining shrinking cities. Berkeley Plann J Urban Fringe. 3 Dec.
  55. Massey DS, Denton NA (1993) American apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  56. McCulley J (2010) Black resistance to school desegregation in St. Louis during the Brown era. The Confluence (Fall/Winter): 28–37.
  57. McWilliams J (2006) Life after ford: lesson from Hazelwood, MO. The Virginian-Pilot. 9 Jul.
  58. Metro St. Louis (n.d.) History.
  59. Millennials Buying in the Suburbs (2017) Zillow. 1 Mar.
  60. Missouri Department of Elementary & Secondary Education (n.d.) Charter Schools.
  61. Moore D (2014) Public housing high-rises to become part of the past in St. Louis. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 22 Mar.
  62. Mumford E (2009) Defining urban design: CIAM architects and the formation of a discipline, 1937–69. Yale University Press, New Haven, CTGoogle Scholar
  63. Mumford E (2000) The CIAM discourse on urbanism, 1928–1960. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  64. Mumford E (ed) (2015) The writings of Josep Lluís Sert. Yale University Press, New Haven, CTGoogle Scholar
  65. Mumford E (ed) (2004) Modern architecture in St. Louis: Washington University and postwar American architecture, 1948–1973. Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  66. Mumford E, Hashim S (eds) (2008) Josep Lluís Sert: the architect of urban design. Yale University Press, New Haven, CTGoogle Scholar
  67. National Endowment for the Arts (n.d.) Our Town: introduction.
  68. National League of Cities (2016) Number of municipal governments & population distribution.
  69. North DC (1961) The economic growth of the United States 1790–1860. W. W. Prentice Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  70. Nursing Home Case Study in Missouri (n.d.) Construction Market Data.
  71. Ogilvie S (2014) Northside/Southside MetroLink expansion and transforming transit in St. Louis. NextSTL. 4 Dec.
  72. Old North Saint Louis restoration group (n.d.) A short history of Old North.
  73. OneSTL (2016) About us.
  74. OneSTL (2013) OneSTL: plan for a prosperous, healthy, vibrant St. Louis region. 11 Dec.
  75. Palko C (2010) America’s 100 most conservative-friendly counties. The Daily Caller. 19 Mar.
  76. Pew Research Center (2011) Wealth gaps rise to record highs between whites, blacks and hispanics. Pew social trends. 26 Jul.
  77. Pitkin B (2002) Review of place matters: metropolitics for the twenty-first century. In: Critical planning 9 (summer), (eds) Dreier P, Mollenkopf JH, Swanstrom T: 143–145. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, KSGoogle Scholar
  78. Powell JA (2008) Structural racism: building upon the insights of John Calmore. North Carolina Law Rev 86(3): 791–816.Google Scholar
  79. Purnell J (2015) For the sake of all. Washington University in St. Louis.
  80. Randle J (2007) Old time wheels: exhibition highlights St. Louis’ role in auto industry. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 7 Mar.
  81. Ravitch D (2014) Reign of error: the hoax of the privatization movement and the danger to America’s public schools. First Vintage Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Reid A (2015) Vince Schoemehl is back in Grand Center with the nine network. St. Louis Magazine. 22 Sept.
  83. Restrictive Covenant (n.d.) The Free Dictionary.
  84. Riverview Gardens School District Rankings (2018) Niche.
  85. Rooks N (2017) Cutting school: privatization, segregation, and the end of public education. The New Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  86. Belt R (2003) Dictionary of American history.
  87. Sacred Sites (2017) The East St. Louis 1917 Centennial Commission & Cultural Initiative.
  88. Schmid J (2015) Help wanted: most US job openings are for low-skill, low-pay workers. J Sentinel. 4 Apr.
  89. Sharkey P (2013) Stuck in place: urban neighborhoods and the end of progress toward racial equality. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Skinker-DeBaliviere-Catlin Tract-Parkview Historic District (2011–2016) City of St. Louis.
  91. Soerget A (2017) Study: globalization has boosted income inequality. US news. 8 May.
  92. St. Louis City School District (2018) Niche.
  93. St. Louis County MO (2010) Census designated places and municipalities 2010.
  94. St. Louis historic preservation (n.d.) Event: great divorce of 1876.
  95. St. Louis historic preservation (n.d.) People.
  96. Stoll M (2000) Within cities and suburbs: racial residential concentration and the spatial distribution of employment opportunities across sub-metropolitan areas. J Policy Anal Manag 19(2): 207–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Taylor D (2014) Toxic communities: environmental racism, industrial pollution, and residential mobility. New York University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  98. The Delmar Loop (2016) About the loop.
  99. The Ferguson commission (n.d.) Implementation. Forward through Ferguson.
  100. The Wellston Loop (2016a) The Wellston loop: the golden years of the community.
  101. The Wellston Loop (2016b) White flight and urban renewal: Wellston’s decline.
  102. Tighe JR, Ganning JP (2015) The divergent city: unequal and uneven development in St. Louis. Urban Geogr 36 (5): 654–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tower Grove Heights Neighborhood Association (n.d.) Welcome to the neighborhood.
  104. Tower Grove South (n.d.) City of St. Louis.
  105. Tranel M (ed) (2007) St. Louis plans: the ideal and real St. Louis. Missouri Historical Society Press, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar
  106. University of Pennsylvania Press (2016) About mapping decline: St. Louis and the fate of the American city.
  107. Urban Land Institute (2015) America in 2015: a ULI survey of views on housing, transportation, and community.
  108. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age.
  109. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015a) Chesterfield City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  110. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015b) Creve Coeur City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  111. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015c) Ferguson City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  112. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015d) Ladue City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  113. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015e) St. Charles County, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  114. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015f) Velda Village Hills City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  115. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015g) Wellston City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  116. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015h) Wentzville City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  117. U.S. Census Bureau (2010–2015i) Wildwood City, Missouri. American FactFinder.
  118. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health (2013) Infant mortality and African Americans.
  119. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (n.d.) Title VIII: Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity.
  120. U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division (2015) Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department. 4 Mar.
  121. Vega T (2016) Blacks still far behind whites in wealth and income. CNN Money. 27 Jun.
  122. White Flight (n.d.)
  123. Whitman M (2015) The state of technology: welcome to the idea economy. LinkedIn. 2 Jun.
  124. Wilson WJ (1997) When work disappears: the world of the new urban poor. Vintage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  125. Wilson WJ (1987) The truly disadvantaged: the inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  126. Wilson WJ (1980) The declining significance of race: blacks and changing American institutions, 2nd edn. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  127. WW Norton & Company (2015) About the economic growth of the United States, 1790–1860.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catalina Freixas
    • 1
  • Mark Abbott
    • 2
  1. 1.ArchitectureWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Social and Behavioral SciencesHarris-Stowe State UniversitySt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations