Police Abuse and the Racialized Boundaries of Citizenship in France

  • Cathy Lisa Schneider
Chapter

Abstract

Cathy Lisa Schneider argues that police abuse defines the racial boundaries of democratic citizenship. Using ethnographic methods, she reveals how French police treat black and Arab youth, including those born in France, as if they were a foreign enemy. This practice is a legacy of France’s colonial empire, particularly, colonial rule in Algeria. Despite efforts to reform the police in the 1990s, most black and Arab youth continue to live in segregated neighborhoods virtually occupied by police. Because police are not held accountable when they abuse minority youth, minority youth feel that their lives do not matter in France. It is this that explains the periodic eruption of riots, as well as more deadly incidents of violence in black and Arab neighborhoods in France.

References

  1. Amnesty International. 2016. “France: Renewal of State of Emergency Risks Normalizing Exceptional Measures.” Amnesty, December 15. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2016/12/france-renewal-of-state-of-emergency-risks-normalizing-exceptional-measures/.
  2. Anderson, Perry. 2004. “Union Sucreé.” London Review of Books 18. http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n18/perry-anderson/union-sucre.
  3. Begag, Azouz. 2007. Ethnicity in the Balance. Omaha: University of Nebraska Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennoune, Mahfoud. 1975. “Maghribin Workers in France.” Middle East Research and Information Project Reports 34.Google Scholar
  5. Blanchard, Emmanuel. 2006. “Police Judiciaire et Pratiques d’Exception Pendant la Guerre d’Algéri.” Vingtiéme Siècle: Revue d’Histoire 2: 61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanchard, Emmanuel. 2012. “La Goutte d’Or, 30 Juillet 1955: Une Émeute au Coeur de la Métropole Coloniale.” Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales 5: 98–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blanchard, Emmanuel. 2013. “La Goutte d’Or, 30 July 1955: A Riot in the Heart of the Colonial City.” Les Mots son Importants. http://lmsi.net/La-Goutte-d-Or-30-juillet-1955.
  8. Bonelli, Laurent. 2008. La France a peur. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  9. Bonelli, Laurent. 2012. “Governing the Police: Political Bargaining and Organizational Outputs in the French Police Reforms (1982–2010).” Presented at the International Political Science Association Annual Conference, Madrid.Google Scholar
  10. Einaudi, Jean Luc. 1991. La bataille de Paris, 17 Octobre 1961. Paris: Seuil.Google Scholar
  11. Einaudi, Jean Luc. 2001. October 1961: Un massacre á Paris. Paris: Librarie Arthéme Fayard.Google Scholar
  12. Ellinas, Antonis A. 2010. The Media and the Far Right in Western Europe: Playing the Nationalist Card. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fassin, Didier. 2013. Enforcing Order: An Ethnography of Urban Policing. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  14. Ferrandez, Jacques. 2012. “Algérie 1830–1962, with Jacques Ferrandez.” Exhibition at the Musée de l’Armée, Paris.Google Scholar
  15. Fysh, Peter, and Jim Wolfreys. 2003. The Politics of Racism in France. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gordon, Daniel A. 2000. “World Reactions to the 1961 Pogrom.” University of Sussex Journal of Contemporary History 1: 1–6.Google Scholar
  17. Gourevitch, Philip. 2011. “No Exit: Can Nicolas Sarkozy—And France—Survive the European Crisis?” New Yorker, December 12. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/12/12/111212fa_fact_gourevitch?currentPage=all.
  18. Hargreaves, Alec G. 1995. Immigration, “Race” and Ethnicity in Contemporary France. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. House, Jim, and Neil MacMaster. 2006. Paris 1961: Algerians, State Terror and Memory. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Kedward, Rod. 2005. France and the French: A Modern History. Woodstock and New York: Overlook.Google Scholar
  21. Khosokrovar, Farhad. 2015. “The Mill of Muslim Radicalization in France.” The New York Times, January 25. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/26/opinion/the-mill-of-muslim-radicalism-in-france.html.
  22. McPartland, Ben. 2017. “Why the French Banlieues are Ripe for a Repeat of the 2005 Riots.” The Local, February 14. http://www.thelocal.fr/20151027/france-ripe-for-repeat-of-2005-riots.
  23. Napoli, James J. 1997. “A 1961 Massacre in Paris: When the Media Failed the Test.” Washington Report on the Middle East Affairs 36. http://www.wrmea.org/wrmea-archives/185-washington-report-archives-1994–1999/march-1997/2464-a-1961-massacre-of-algerians-in-paris-when-the-media-failed-the-test-.html.
  24. Peyrefitte, Alain. 1977. Réponse à la violence. Rapport à M. Président de la République présenté par le Comité d’Etudes sur Violence, la Criminalité, et la Délinquance.Google Scholar
  25. Prakash, Amit. 2010. Empire on the Seine: Surveillance, Citizenship, and North African Migrants in Paris (1925–1975). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Rosenberg, Clifford. 2006. Policing Paris. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Ross, Kristin. 2002. May ’68 and Its Afterlives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  28. Sayad, Abdelmalek. 2004. The Suffering of the Immigrant. London: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  29. Schneider, Cathy Lisa. 2014. Police Power and Race Riots. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shepard, Todd. 2006. The Invention of Decolonization: The Algerian War and the Re-making of France. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Silverman, Maxim. 1992. Deconstructing the Nation: Immigration, Racism and Citizenship in Modern France. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Silverstein, Paul A. 2005. “Urban Violence in France.” Middle East Report Online, November. http://www.merip.org/mero/interventions/urban-violence-france.
  33. Silverstein, Paul A. 2006. “Postcolonial Urban Apartheid.” Presented at the Social Science Research Council [SSRC] Conference on “Riots in France,” New York City.Google Scholar
  34. Terrio, Susan. 2009. Judging Mohammed: Juvenile Delinquency, Immigration and Exclusion at the Paris Hall of Justice. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Weil, Patrick. 1988. “La Politique Française d’Immigration.” Pouvoirs 47: 45–60.Google Scholar
  36. Weil, Patrick. 2017. “Le projet de loi antiterroriste rappelle le code de l’indigénat.” Le Monde, Septembre 26, 2017. http://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2017/09/27/patrick-weil-le-projet-de-loi-antiterroriste-rappelle-le-code-de-l-indigenat_5191957_3232.html.
  37. Zauberman, Renee, and René Lévy. 2003. “Police, Minorities and the French Republican Ideal.” Criminology 41 (1): 1065–100.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cathy Lisa Schneider
    • 1
  1. 1.School of International ServiceAmerican UniversityWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations