Advertisement

Open Abdomen

  • Pier Luigi Ipponi
Chapter

Abstract

In the mind of a general surgeon, to leave the open abdomen at the end of a procedure might generate an unconscious discomfort due to the feeling of having accomplished an incomplete act. However, it represents one of the major innovations over the last 20 years as lifesaving solution and a strategic moment in minimal damage control surgery, which transposes the warfare experience into the management of major surgical emergencies.

References

  1. 1.
    Hepburn HH. Br Med J. i I8I–3, February 15, 1919.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Coller FA, et al. The delayed closure of contaminated wounds: a preliminary report. Ann Surg. 1940;112(2):256–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burkhalter WE, Butler B. Experiences with delayed primary closure of war wounds of the hand in Vietnam. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1969;44(1):94. In the late summer and fall of 1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dimick AR. Delayed wound closure: indications and techniques. War wounds of limbs—surgical management. Ann Emerg Med. 1988;17(12):1303–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ogilvie WH. The late complications of abdominal war wounds. Lancet. 1940;2:253–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ogilvie WH. Surgical lessons of war applied to civil practice. Br Med J. 1945;1(4400):619–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hirshberg A, Mattox KL. Planned reoperation for severe trauma. Ann Surg. 1995;223:3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Steinberg D. On leaving the peritoneal cavity open in acute generalized suppurative peritonitis. Am J Surg. 1979;137(2):216–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Open management of the septic abdomen [editorial]. Lancet. 1986;2:138–9.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mughal MM, Bancewicz J, Irving MH. “Laparostomy”: a technique for the management of intractable intra-abdominal sepsis. Br J Surg. 1986;73(4):253–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Duff JH, Moffat J. Abdominal sepsis managed by leaving abdomen open. Surgery. 1981;90(4):774–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Haldipur N, et al. Managing the open abdomen. J R Army Med Corps. 2006;152:143–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    More EE. Staged laparotomy for the hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy syndrome. Am J Surg. 1996;172:405–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mac Leod JBA. Trauma and Coagulopathy a new paradigm to consider. Arch Surg. 2008;143(8):797–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    GJ J, et al. Hypothermia in trauma victims: an ominous predictor of survival. J Trauma. 1987;27:101.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Slotman GJ, Jed EH, Burchard KW. Adverse effects of hypothermia in post-operative patients. Am J Surg. 1985;149(4):495–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cushman JG, Feliciano DV, et al. Iliac vascular injury: operative physiology related to outcome. J Trauma. 1990;30:200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Inaba et al. Mortality impact of hypothermia after cavitary exploration in trauma. World J Surg. 2009;33:864–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kirkpatrick AW, et al. Intra-abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome: updated consensus definitions and clinical practice guidelines from the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39(7):1190–206.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Björck M, Bruhin A, Cheatham M, et al. Classification—important step to improve management of patients with an open abdomen. World J Surg. 2009;33(6):1154–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bender JS, Bailey CE, Saxe JM, et al. The technique of visceral packing: recommended management of difficult fascial closure in trauma patients. J Trauma. 1994 Feb;36(2):182–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morris JA Jr, Eddy VA, Blinman TA, et al. The staged celiotomy for trauma. Issues in unpacking and reconstruction. Ann Surg. 1993;217(5):576–84. discussion 584–6CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bailey CMH, Thompson-Fawcett MW, Kettlewell MGW, Garrard C, Mortensen NJM. Laparostomy for severe intra-abdominal infection complicating colorectal disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000;43(1):25–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Leguit P Jr. Zip-closure of the abdomen. Neth J Surg. 1982;34(1):40–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stone HH, Strom PR, Mullins RJ. Pancreatic abscess management by subtotal resection and packing. World J Surg. 1984;8(3):340–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Teichmann W, Wittmann DH, Andreone PA. Scheduled reoperations (etappen lavage) for diffuse peritonitis. Arch Surg. 1986;121(2):147–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Utiyama EM, et al. Temporary abdominal closure with zipper-mesh device for management of intra-abdominal sepsis. Rev Col Bras Cir. 2015;42(1):018–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wittmann DH, Aprahamian C, Bergstein JM. Etappenlavage: advanced diffuse peritonitis managed by planned multiple laparotomies utilizing zippers, slide fastener, and Velcro analogue for temporary abdominal closure. World J Surg. 1990;14(2):218–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haddock C, Konkin DE, Blair NP. Management of the open abdomen with the abdominal reapproximation anchor dynamic fascial closure system. Am J Surg. 2013;205(5):528–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miller PR, Meredith JW, Johnson JC, Chang MC. Prospective evaluation of vacuum-assisted fascial closure after open abdomen: planned ventral hernia rate is substantially reduced. Ann Surg. 2004;239(5):608–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cothren CC, Moore EE, Johnson JL, Moore JB, Burch JM. One hundred percent fascial approximation with sequential abdominal closure of the open abdomen. Am J Surg. 2006;192(2):238–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pliakos I, Papavramidis TS, Michalopoulos N, et al. The value of vacuum-assisted closure in septic patients treated with laparostomy. Am Surg. 2012;78(9):957–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kaplan M, Daly D, Stemkowski S. Early intervention of negative pressure wound therapy utilizing vacuum assisted closure in trauma patients: impact on hospital length of stay and cost. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2009;22(3):128–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Driver VR, De Leon JM. Health economic implications for wound care and limb preservation. J Manag Care Med. 2008;11(1):13–9.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    De Leon JM, Nagel M, Fudge M et al. Early use of negative pressure wound therapy in long-term acute care patients is associated with reduced length of stay. Presented at the third congress of the World Union of Wound Healing Societies, 4–8 June 2008, Toronto, Ontario. PF225. 6-4-2008.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Acosta S, Bjarnason T, Petersson U, et al. Multicentre prospective study of fascial closure rate after open abdomen with vacuum and mesh-mediated fascial traction. Br J Surg. 2011;98(5):735–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rasilainen SK, Mentula PJ, Leppäniemi AK. Vacuum and mesh-mediated fascial traction for primary closure of the open abdomen in critically ill surgical patients. Br J Surg. 2012;99(12):1725–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bjarnason T, Montgomery A, Ekberg O, et al. One-year follow-up after open abdomen therapy with vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction. World J Surg. 2013;37(9):2031–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vertrees A, Greer L, Pickett C, et al. Modern management of complex open abdominal wounds of war: a 5-year experience. J Am Coll Surg. 2008;207(6):801–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hodgson NCF, Malthaner RA, Østbye T. The search for an ideal method of abdominal fascial closure. A meta-analysis. Ann Surg. 2000;231(3):436–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fansler RF, Taheri P, Cullinane C, Sabates B, Flint LM. Polypropylene mesh closure of the complicated abdominal wound. Am J Surg. 1995;170(1):15–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    The Ventral Hernia Working Group. Surgery. 2010;148:544–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Strom TB, et al. The Th1/Th2 paradigm and the allograft response. Curr Opin Immunol. 1996;8:688–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Melman L, et al. Early biocompatibility of crosslinked and non-crosslinked biologic meshes in a porcine model of ventral hernia repair. Hernia. 2011;15:157–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Novitsky YW. Comparative analysis of histopathologic responses to implanted porcine biologic meshes. Hernia. 2014;18(5):713–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Harris HW. Clinical outcomes of biologic mesh: where do we stand? Surg Clin N Am. 2013;93:1217–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ferzoco SJ. A systematic review of outcomes following repair of complex ventral incisional hernias with biologic mesh. Int Surg. 2013;98(4):399–408.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Abdelfatah NR, Podgaetz E, Sarr MG. Long-term outcomes (>5-year follow-up) with porcine acellular dermal matrix (PermacolTM) in incisional hernias at risk for infection. Hernia. 2015;19:135–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Negro P, D’Amore L, Ceci F, Gossetti F. Comment to Long-term outcomes (>5-year follow-up) with porcine acellular dermal matrix (PermacolTM) in incisional hernias at risk for infection. Hernia. 2015;19(6):1023–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Harth KC, et al. Biologic mesh use practice patterns in abdominal wall reconstruction: a lack of consensus among surgeons. Hernia. 2013;17:13–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ramirez OM, Ruas E, Dellon AL. “Components separation” method for closure of abdominal-wall defects: an anatomic and clinical study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1990;86(3):519–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Novitsky YW, Elliott HL, Orenstein SB, Rosen MJ. Transversus abdominis muscle release: a novel approach to posterior component separation during complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Am J Surg. 2012;204(5):709–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Carbonell AM, Cobb WS, Chen SM. Posterior components separation during retromuscular hernia repair. Hernia. 2008;12(4):359–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pier Luigi Ipponi
    • 1
  1. 1.General Surgeon, Azienda USL Centro ToscanaOspedale San Giovanni di DioFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations