Values of Ethnic Russian Minority Members in North Caucasus Republics of the Russian Federation: An Inter- and Intragenerational Comparison

  • Victoria Galyapina
  • Nadezhda Lebedeva
  • Zarina Lepshokova
  • Klaus Boehnke
Chapter
Part of the Societies and Political Orders in Transition book series (SOCPOT)

Abstract

This paper examines inter- and intragenerational value similarities and differences among two generations of ethnic Russian minority members living in two North Caucasus republics—North Ossetia-Аlania (RNO-A) and Kabardino-Balkaria (KBR) of the Russian Federation. It also compares them with values of two generations of Russians in the Central Federal District of Russia (CFD) and with values of indigenous people in these republics. The sample included 563 parent-adolescent dyads, 720 ethnic Russians, and 406 members of the dominant ethnic groups in the North Caucasus republics overall. Data were obtained using Schwartz’s Revised Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R). Scores for Schwartz’s four higher-order value types (Openness to Change, Self-Enhancement, Conservation, Self-Transcendence) were calculated. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed intergenerational gaps only for Openness to Change and Conservation values among the ethnic Russian minority in the North Caucasus republics, whereas among Russians in the CFD, intergenerational gaps emerged for all higher-order values. Furthermore, we found that the pattern of intergenerational similarities and differences in the Russian minority of RNO and KBR was closer to the patterns of the dominant ethnic groups of these republics than to the pattern exhibited by Russians in the CFD. The incurred intergenerational value differences are interpreted as reflecting differences in sociocultural contexts of the two generations at their times of upbringing, in line with sociological modernization theory.

Keywords

Values Generation Ethnic Russian minority North Caucasus 

References

  1. Ataev, A. (2013, September). Status i perspektivy russkogo naseleniya na Severnom Kavkaze [Status and prospects of the Russian population in the North Caucasus]. Kamerton. Retrieved from http://webkamerton.ru/2013/09/status-i-perspektivy-russkogo-naseleniya-na-severnom-kavkaze
  2. Belozerov, V. S. (2001). Russkiye na Kavkaze: evolyutsiya rasseleniya [Russians in the Caucasus: Evolution of settlement]. In V. V. Chernous (Ed.), Russkiye na Severnom Kavkaze: vyzovy XXI veka. Sbornik nauchnykh statey (pp. 27–45). Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation: North-Caucasian Scientific Centre of Higher School.Google Scholar
  3. Boehnke, K. (1983). Der Einfluß verschiedener Stichprobencharakteristika auf die Effizienz der parametrischen und nichtparametrischen Varianzanalyse [The influence of various sample characteristics on the efficiency of parametric and non-parametric ANOVA]. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boehnke, K. (2001). Parent-offspring value transmission in a societal context: Suggestions for a utopian research design with empirical underpinnings. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 241–255.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022101032002010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boehnke, K., Hadjar, A., & Baier, D. (2007). Parent-child value similarity: The role of zeitgeist. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69, 778–792.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2007.00405.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boehnke, K., & Welzel, C. (2006). Wertetransmission und Wertewandel – Eine explorative Drei-Generationen-Studie [Value transmission and value change – An exploratory three-generation study]. Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation, 26(4), 341–360.Google Scholar
  7. Caprara, G. V., Caprara, M., & Steca, P. (2003). Personality’s correlates of adult development and aging. European Psychologist, 8, 131–147.  https://doi.org/10.1027//1016-9040.8.3.131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Caprara, G. V., & Steca, P. (2007). Prosocial agency: The contribution of values and self-efficacy beliefs to prosocial behavior across ages. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26, 218–239.  https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2007.26.2.218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chernous, V. V. (Ed.). (2005). Slavyanskiye narody na Severnom Kavkaze: sovremennyye demograficheskiye protsessy [Slavic peoples in the North Caucasus: Modern demographic processes]. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation: North-Caucasian Scientific Centre of Higher School.Google Scholar
  10. Denisova, G. S., & Ulanov, V. P. (2003). Russkiye na Severnom Kavkaze: analiz transformatsii sotsiokul’turnogo statusa [Russian North Caucasus: An analysis of the transformation of the socio-cultural status]. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation: Publishing House of the Rostov State Pedagogical University.Google Scholar
  11. Eisenstadt, S. N. (1956). From generation to generation. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. Foundation for Advanced Studies. (2012). Demograficheskiye i etnicheskiye problemy Severnogo Kavkaza i puti ikh resheniya [Demographic and ethnic problems of the North Caucasus and ways of solving them]. Moscow: Bastion.Google Scholar
  13. Grusec, J. E., & Davidov, M. (2007). Socialization in the family: The roles of parents. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 284–308). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Gutsunaeva, S.V. (2010). Strategii mezhetnicheskogo vzaimodeystviya osetin i russkikh, prozhivayushchikh v respublike Severnaya Osetiya – Alaniya [Strategy of interethnic interaction and Russians and Ossetians living in the republic of North Ossetia – Alania]. Candidate Dissertation. University of St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.Google Scholar
  15. Hadjar, A., Boehnke, K., Knafo, A., Daniel, E., Musiol, A., Schiefer, D., et al. (2012). Parent-child value similarity and subjective well being in the context of migration: An exploration. Family Science, 3, 55–63.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19424620.2011.671502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2005). Modernization, cultural change and democracy: The human development sequence. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kamo, Y., & Zhou, M. (1994). Living arrangements of elderly Chinese and Japanese in the united states. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 544–558.  https://doi.org/10.2307/352866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2001). Value socialization in families of Israeli-born and Soviet-born adolescents in Israel. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 213–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Knafo, A., & Schwartz, S. H. (2003). Parenting and adolescents’ accuracy in perceiving parental values. Child Development, 74, 595–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kuczynski, L., & Parkin, C. M. (2007). Agency and bidirectionality in socialization. Interactions, transactions and relational dialectics. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 259–283). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  21. Kwast-Welfel, J., Boski, P., & Rovers, M. (2008). Intergenerational value similarity in Polish immigrant families in Canada in comparison to intergenerational value similarity in Polish and Canadian non-immigrant families. In G. Zheng, K. Leung, & J. G. Adair (Eds.), Perspectives and progress in contemporary cross-cultural psychology (pp. 193–209). Ottawa: University of Ottawa.Google Scholar
  22. Lepshokova, Z., Galyapina, V., & Lebedeva, N. (2016). The impact of religious identity and perceived psychological closeness on parent-child value similarity in different religious contexts. Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, 13, 223–239.Google Scholar
  23. Lisovskiy, V. T. (2000). Tsennosti zhizni i kul’tury sovremennoy molodezhi (sotsiologicheskoye issledovaniye) [The values of life and culture of modern youth (sociological research)]. Retrieved from http://multi-kultura.ru/kultura-razgovora/mysl01_09.html
  24. Maliepaard, M., & Lubbers, M. (2013). Parental religious transmission after migration: The case of Dutch Muslims. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39, 425–442.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183x.2013.733862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Phalet, K., & Schönpflug, U. (2001). Intergenerational transmission in Turkish immigrant families: Parental collectivism, achievement values and gender differences. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 32, 489–504.Google Scholar
  26. Postnikova, M. I. (2010). Psikhologiya otnosheniy mezhdu pokoleniyami: teoretiko-metodologicheskiy aspekt [Psychology of intergenerational relations: The theoretical and methodological aspect. Monograph. Arkhangelsk. Pomor University]. Monografiya. Arkhangel’sk, Russian Federation: Pomorskiy Universitet.Google Scholar
  27. Rick, K., & Forward, J. (1992). Acculturation and perceived intergenerational differences among youth. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 23, 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Roest, A. M. C., Dubas, J. S., Gerris, J. R. M., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2009). Value similarities among fathers, mothers, and adolescents and the role of a cultural stereotype: Different measurement strategies reconsidered. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19, 812–833.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00621.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rosstata. (2004). Itogi Vserossiyskoy perepisi naseleniya 2002 goda [The results of the National Population Census of 2002] (Vol. 4). Moscow, Russian Federation: IPC ‘Statistics of Russia’.Google Scholar
  30. Rosstata. (2012). T. 11. Svodnyye itogi Vserossiyskoy perepisi naseleniya 2010 goda [The results of the National Population Census of 2010. Vol. 11. Summary results of the national census in 2010]. Retrieved from http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/vol11pdf-m.html
  31. Sam, D. L., & Virta, E. (2003). Intergenerational value discrepancies in immigrant and host-national families and their impact on psychological adaptation. Journal of Adolescence, 26, 213–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schönpflug, U. (2001). Intergenerational transmission of values: The role of transmission belts. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 174–185.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022101032002005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schwartz, S. (2007). Value orientations: Measurement, antecedents and consequences across nations. In R. Jowell, C. Roberts, R. Fitzgerald, & G. Eva (Eds.), Measuring attitudes cross-nationally. Lessons from the European Social Survey (pp. 169–203). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schwartz, S., Butenko, T. P., Sedova, D. S., & Lipatova, A. S. (2012). Refined theory of basic individual values: Use in Russia. Psychology. Journal of Higher School of Economics, 9, 43–70.Google Scholar
  35. Sklyarova, D. V. (2008). Osobennosti etnicheskoy identichnosti studencheskoy molodezhi kabardinskoy, balkarskoy i russkoy etnogrupp [Features of ethnic identity of student’s youth Kabardian, Balkar and Russian ethnic groups]. Candidate Dissertation. University of Rostov on Don. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation: North-Caucasian Scientific Centre of Higher School.Google Scholar
  36. Soldatova, G. U. (1998). Psikhologiya mezhetnicheskoy napryazhennosti. [Psychology of interethnic tension]. Moscow, Russian Federation: Smysl.Google Scholar
  37. Steinberg, L. (1990). Autonomy, conflict, and harmony in the family relationship. In S. Feldman & G. Elliott (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 225–276). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Sung, K. (1995). Measures and dimensions of filial piety in Korea. The Gerontologist, 35, 240–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Szapocznik, J., & Kurtines, W. (1993). Family psychology and cultural diversity. American Psychologist, 48, 400–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Takaki, R. (1989). Strangers from a different shore. New York, NY: Penguin.Google Scholar
  41. Vedder, P., Berry, J., Sabatier, C., & Sam, D. (2009). The intergenerational transmission of values in national and immigrant families: The role of zeitgeist. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 642–653.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9375-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vishnevskiy, Y. R., & Shapko, V. T. (2006). Paradoksal’nyy molodoy chelovek [The paradox young man]. Retrieved from http://ecsocman.hse.ru/data/870/792/1219/004_vishnevskij.pdf
  43. Vollebergh, W. A. M., Iedema, J., & Raaijmakers, Q. A. W. (2001). Intergenerational transmission and the formation of cultural orientations in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1185–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vorobyov, S. M. (2001). Etnopoliticheskiye protsessy na Severnom Kavkaze v postsovetskiy period [Ethnopolitical processes in the North Caucasus in the post-Soviet period]. Candidate Dissertation. University of Stavropol, Stavropol, Russian Federation.Google Scholar
  45. Vsesoyuznaya perepis’ naseleniya 1939 goda, 1959 goda, 1970 goda, 1979 goda, 1989 goda. Natsional’nyy sostav naseleniya po regionam Rossii. (2015). [All Union Population Census of 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989. National composition of the population in the Russian regions]. Demosсope Weekly (pp. 651–652). Retrieved from http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_nac_70.php?reg=50
  46. Whitbeck, L. B., & Gecas, V. (1988). Value attributions and value transmission between parents and children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 829–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yau, J., & Smetana, J. (1996). Adolescent-parent conflict among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Child Development, 67, 1262–1275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victoria Galyapina
    • 1
  • Nadezhda Lebedeva
    • 1
  • Zarina Lepshokova
    • 1
  • Klaus Boehnke
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.National Research University Higher School of EconomicsMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Jacobs University BremenBremenGermany

Personalised recommendations