Advertisement

Endometriosis: From Diagnosis to Surgical Management

  • Mateus Moreira Santos Rosin
  • Mauricio Simões Abrão
Chapter

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to outline the clinical rationale for diagnosis, knowledge of extent of lesions, and planning of surgical treatment of endometriosis.

The importance of knowing the different forms of endometriosis in order to direct the main complementary exams for diagnosis and the surgical treatment is discussed in this chapter. There are different approaches for the surgical treatment of disease according to the most affected organs: the uterus, vagina, bladder, ovaries, or intestine. The need of a multidisciplinary team involved in the management of this complex disease is mandatory.

Keywords

Endometriosis Laparoscopy Transvaginal sonography 

References

  1. 1.
    Abrão MS, Dias JA Jr, Podgaec S. Histórico e aspectos epidemiológicos da endometriose: Uma doença prevalente e de conhecimento antigo. In: Abrão MS, editor. Endometriose: Uma visão contemporânea. Rio de Janeiro: Revinter; 2000. p. 1–11.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koninckx PR, Meuleman C, Demeyere S, Lesaffre E, Cornillie FJ. Suggestive evidence that pelvic endometriosis is a progressive disease, whereas deeply infiltrating endometriosis is associated with pelvic pain. Fertil Steril. 1991;55:759–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bulun SE. Endometriosis. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:268–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leyendecker G, Herbertz M, Kunz G, Mall G. Endometriosis results from the dislocation of basal endometrium. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:2725–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Leyendecker G, Kunz G, Noe M, Herbertz M, Mall G. Endometriosis: a dysfunction and disease of the archimetra. Hum Reprod Update. 1998;4:752–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abrão MS, Amaral VF, Ramos LO. Classificação daendometriose: É tempo de reavaliar. Femina. 1998;26:677–80.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Giudice LC, Kao LC. Endometriosis. Lancet. 2004;364:1789–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Donnez J, Nisolle M, Casanas-Roux F, Bassil S, Anaf V. Rectovaginal septum, endometriosis or adenomyosis: laparoscopic management in a series of 231 patients. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:630–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Koninckx PR, Martin DC. Deep endometriosis: a consequence of infiltration or retraction or possibly adenomyosis externa? Fertil Steril. 1992;58:924–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Canis M, Donnez JG, Guzick DS, Halme JK, Rock JA, Schenken RS, et al. Revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine classification of endometriosis: 1996. Fertil Steril. 1997;67:817–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kennedy S, Bergqvist A, Chapron C, et al. ESHRE guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:2698–704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Adamson GD, Pasta DJ. Endometriosis fertility index: the new, validated endometriosis staging system. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1609–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ad hoc Committees. Endometriosis classification. 2011. Available at: www.aagl.org/Committees-Ad-Hoc. Accessed 14 Apr 2012.
  14. 14.
    Coccia ME, Rizzello F. Ultrasonographic staging: a new staging system for deep endometriosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1221:61–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vercellini P, Carmignani L, Rubino T, Barbara G, Abbiati A, Fedele L. Surgery for deep endometriosis: a pathogenesis-oriented approach. Gynecol Obstet Investig. 2009a;68:88–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vercellini P, Crosignani PG, Abbiati A, Somigliana E, Vigano P, Fedele L. The effect of surgery for symptomatic endometriosis: the other side of the story. Hum Reprod Update. 2009b;15(2):177–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vercellini P, Crosignani PG, Somigliana E, Berlanda N, Barbara G, Fedele L. Medical treatment for rectovaginal endometriosis: what is the evidence? Hum Reprod. 2009c;24:2504–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Halis G, Mechsner S, Ebert AD. The diagnosis and treatment of deep infiltrating endometriosis. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010;107(25):446–56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hudelist G, Ballard K, English J, Wright J, Banerjee S, Mastoroudes H, et al. Transvaginal sonography vs. clinical examination in the preoperative diagnosis of deep infiltrating endometriosis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2011a;37:480–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hudelist G, English J, Thomas AE, Tinelli A, Singer CF, Keckstein J. Diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound for non-invasive diagnosis of bowel endometriosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2011b;37:257–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koninckx PR, Ussia A, Adamyan L, Wattiez A, Donnez J. Deep endometriosis: definition, diagnosis, and treatment. Fertil Steril. 2012;98(3):564–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ballester M, Santulli P, Bazot M, Coutant C, Rouzier R, Darai E. Preoperative evaluation of posterior deep-infiltrating endometriosis demonstrates a relationship with urinary dysfunction and parametrial involvement. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2011;18:36–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Exacoustos C, Malzoni M, Di Giovanni A, Lazzeri L, Tosti C, Petraglia F, et al. Ultrasound mapping system for the surgical management of deep infiltrating endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2014;102(1):143–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Piketty M, Chopin N, Dousset B, Millischer-Bellaische AE, Roseau G, Leconte M, et al. Preoperative work-up for patients with deeply infiltrating endometriosis: transvaginal ultrasonography must definitely be the first-line imaging examination. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:602–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bazot M, Darai E, Hourani R, Thomassin I, Cortez A, Uzan S, Buy JN. Deep pelvic endometriosis: MR imaging for diagnosis and prediction of extension of disease. Radiology. 2004;232:379–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roseau G, Dumontier I, Palazzo L, Chapron C, Dousset B, Chaussade S, Dubuisson JB, Couturier D. Rectosigmoid endometriosis: endoscopic ultrasound features and clinical implications. Endoscopy. 2000;32:525–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goncalves MO, Podgaec S, Dias JA Jr, Gonzalez M, Abrão MS. Transvaginal ultrasonography with bowel preparation is able to predict the number of lesions and rectosigmoid layers affected in cases of deep endometriosis, defining surgical strategy. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:665–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Guerriero S, Condous G, Van den Bosch T, Valentin L, Leone FPG, Van Schoubroeck D, et al. Systematic approach to sonographic evaluation of the pelvis in women with suspected endometriosis, including terms, definitions and measurements: a consensus opinion from the International Deep Endometriosis Analysis (IDEA) group. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2016;48:318–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hudelist G, Tuttlies F, Rauter G, Pucher S, Keckstein J. Can transvaginal sonography predict infiltration depth in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis of the rectum? Hum Reprod. 2009;24:1012–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Trippia CH, Zomer MT, Terazaki CRT, Martin RLS, Ribeiro R, Kondo W. Relevance of imaging examinations in the surgical planning of patients with bowel endometriosis. Clin Med Insights Reprod Health. 2016;10:1–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Abrão MS, Gonçalves MO, Dias JA Jr, Podgaec S, Chamie LP, Blasbalg R. Comparison between clinical examination, transvaginal sonography and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of deep endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2007;22:3092–3097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Guerriero S, Ajossa S, Gerada M, D’Aquila M, Piras B, Melis GB. Tenderness-guided’ transvaginal ultrasonography: a new method for the detection of deep endometriosis in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:1293–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Van Holsbeke C, Van Calster B, Guerriero S, et al. Endometriomas: their ultrasound characteristics. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;35:730–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chapron C, Santulli P, de Ziegler D, Noel JC, Anaf V, Streuli I, et al. Ovarian endometrioma: severe pelvic pain is associated with deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:702–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chopin N, Ballester M, Borghese B, Fauconnier A, Foulot H, Malartic C, et al. Relation between severity of dysmenorrhea and endometrioma. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85:1375–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chapron C, Pietin-Vialle C, Borghese B, Davy C, Foulot H, Chopin N. Associated ovarian endometrioma is a marker for greater severity of deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:453–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ghezzi F, Raio L, Cromi A, Duwe DG, Beretta P, Buttarelli M, Mueller MD. “Kissing ovaries”: a sonographic sign of moderate to severe endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:143–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Somigliana E, Infantino M, Candiani M, Vignali M, Chiodini A, Busacca M. Association rate between deep peritoneal endometriosis and other forms of the disease: pathogenetic implications. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:168–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hudelist G, Fritzer N, Staettner S, Tammaa A, Tinelli A, Sparic R, Keckstein J. Uterine sliding sign: a simple sonographic predictor for presence of deep infiltrating endometriosis of the rectum. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;41:692–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Reid S, Lu C, Casikar I, Reid G, Abbott J, Cario G, Chou D, Kowalski D, Cooper M, Condous G. Prediction of pouch of Douglas obliteration in women with suspected endometriosis using a new real-time dynamic transvaginal ultrasound technique: the sliding sign. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;41:685–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dousset B, Leconte M, Borghese B, Millischer AE, Roseau G, Arkwright S, et al. Complete surgery for low rectal endometriosis: long-term results of a 100-case prospective study. Ann Surg. 2010;251:887–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chamié LP, Blasbalg R, Mendes APR, Warmbrand G, Serafini PC. Findings of pelvic endometriosis at transvaginal US, MR imaging, and laparoscopy. Radiographics. 2011;31(4):77–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Guerriero S, Spiga S, Ajossa S, Peddes C, Perniciana M, Soggiu B, et al. Role of imaging in the management of endometriosis. Minerva Ginecol. 2013;65:143–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Roy C, Balzan C, Thoma V, Sauer B, Wattiez A, Leroy J. Efficiency of MR imaging to orientate surgical treatment of posterior deep pelvic endometriosis. Abdom Imaging. 2009;34(2):251–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Saba L, Guerriero S, Sulcis R, Ajossa S, Melis G, Mallarini G. Agreement and reproducibility in identification of endometriosis using magnetic resonance imaging. Acta Radiol. 2010;51(5):573–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kinkel K, Lu Y, Mehdizade A, Pelte MF, Hricak H. Indeterminate ovarian mass at US: incremental value of a second imaging test for characterization: meta-analysis and Bayesian analysis. Radiology. 2005;236:85–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Li Y, Song QW, Sun MY, Wang HQ, Wang S, Wei Q, et al. Use of enhanced T2 star weighted angiography (ESWAN) and R2 values to distinguish ovarian cysts due to endometriosis from other causes. Abdom Imaging. 2015;40(6):1733–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Grasso RF, Di Giacomo V, Sedati P, Sizzi O, Florio G, Faiella E, Rossetti A, Del Vescovo R, Zobel BB. Diagnosis of deep infiltrating endometriosis: accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and transvaginal 3D ultrasonography. Abdom Imaging. 2010;35:716–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Saba L, Guerriero S, Sulcis R, et al. MRI and “tenderness guided” transvaginal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2012;35(2):352–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Takeuchi H, Kuwatsuru R, Kitade M, et al. A novel technique using magnetic resonance imaging jelly for evaluation of rectovaginal endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:442–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jenkins S, Olive DL, Haney AF. Endometriosis: pathogenetic implications of the anatomic distribution. Obstet Gynecol. 1986;67:335–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Redwine DB. Ovarian endometriosis: a marker for more extensive pelvic and intestinal disease. Fertil Steril. 1999;72:310–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Brosens IA, Puttemans PJ, Deprest J. The endoscopic localization of endometrial implants in the ovarian chocolate cyst. Fertil Steril. 1994;61(6):1034–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hughesdon PE. The structure of endometrial cysts of the ovary. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp. 1957;64(4):481–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kurjak A, Arenas JB. Donald School Atlas of clinical application of ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology. In: Carrera JM, Kurjak A, editors. Ultrasonic assessment of adnexal masses, vol. 1. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 2006. p. 393–422.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Donnez J, Nisolle M, Gillet N, Smets M, Bassil S, Casanas-Roux F. Large ovarian endometriomas. Hum Reprod. 1996;11(3):641–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Allan CJ, Metzger DA, Sears DL. Clinical and histologic classification of endometriomas: implications for a mechanism of pathogenesis. J Reprod Med Obstet Gynecol. 1992;37(9):771–6.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nisolle M, Donnez J. Peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis, and adenomyotic nodules of the rectovaginal septum are three different entities. Fertil Steril. 1997;68(4):585–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nezhat F, Datta MS, Hanson V, Pejovic T, Nezhat C. The relationship of endometriosis and ovarian malignancy: a review. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:1559–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schipper E, Nezhat C. Endometriomas. World Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2011;1:137–42. www.amazon.co.uk/Clinics-Obstetrics-Gynecology Endometriosis.Volume/dp/9350358005Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Van Gorp T, Amant F, Neven P, Vergote I, Moerman P. Endometriosis and the development of malignant tumours of the pelvis. A review of literature. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;18:349–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Beretta P, Franchi M, Ghezzi F, Busacca M, Zupi E, Bolis P. Randomized clinical trial of two laparoscopic treatments of endometriomas: cystectomy versus drainage and coagulation. Fertil Steril. 1998a;70:1176–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hart RJ, Hickey M, Maouris P, Buckett W. Excisional surgery versus ablative surgery for ovarian endometriomata. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;2:CD004992.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004992.pub3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Alborzi S, Momtahan M, Parsanezhad ME, Dehbashi S, Zolghadri J, Alborzi S. A prospective, randomized study comparing laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy versus fenestration and coagulation in patients with endometriomas. Fertil Steril. 2004;82(6):1633–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Donnez J, Lousse JC, Jadoul P, Donnez O, Squifflet J. Laparoscopic management of endometriomas using a combined technique of excisional (cystectomy) and ablative surgery. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:28–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Keyhan S, Hughes C, Price T, Muasher S. An update on surgical versus expectant management of ovarian endometriomas in infertile women. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. BioMed Research International Volume 2015, Article ID 204792, 9 pages  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/204792.
  67. 67.
    Cornillie FJ, Oosterlynck D, Lauweryns JM, Koninckx PR. Deeply infiltrating pelvic endometriosis: histology and clinical significance. Fertil Steril. 1990;53:978–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Martin DC, Batt RE. Retrocervical, retrovaginal pouch, and rectovaginal septum endometriosis. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 2001;8:12–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wang G, Tokushige N, Russell P, Dubinovsky S, Markham R, Fraser IS. Hyperinnervation in intestinal deep infiltrating endometriosis. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2009;16:713–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Schipper E, Nezhat C. Video-assisted laparoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of endometriosis: safety, reliability, and invasiveness. Int J Womens Health. 2012;4:383–93.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Donnez J, Jadoul P, Donnez O, Squifflet J. Laparoscopic excision of rectovaginal and retrocervical endometriotic lesions. In: Donnez J, editor. Atlas of operative laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. London: Informa UK Ltd; 2007a. p. 63–75.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Donnez J, Squifflet J, Donnez O, Jadoul P. Bladder endometriosis. In: Donnez J, editor. Atlas of operative laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. London: Informa UK Ltd; 2007b. p. 85–91.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schonman R, De Cicco C, Corona R, Soriano D, Koninckx PR. Accident analysis: factors contributing to a ureteric injury during deep endometriosis surgery. BJOG. 2008;115:1611–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Slack A, Child T, Lindsey I, et al. Urological and colorectal complications following surgery for rectovaginal endometriosis. BJOG. 2007;114:1278–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dubernard G, Rouzier R, David-Montefiore E, Bazot M, Darai E. Use of SF-36 questionnaire to predict quality-of-life improvement after laparoscopic colorectal resection for endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:846–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Landi S, Ceccaroni M, Perutelli A, Allodi C, Barbieri F, Fiaccavento A, Ruffo G, McVeigh E, Zanolla L, Minelli L. Laparoscopic nerve-sparing complete excision of deep endometriosis: is it feasible? Hum Reprod. 2006;21:774–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Possover M, Quakernack J, Chiantera V. The LANN technique to reduce postoperative functional morbidity in laparoscopic radical pelvic surgery. J Am Coll Surg. 2005;21:913–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Volpi E, Ferrero A, Sismondi P. Laparoscopic identification of pelvic nerves in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:1109–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Donnez J, Spada F, Squifflet J, Nisolle M. Bladder endometriosis must be considered as bladder adenomyosis. Fertil Steril. 2000;74(6):1175–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Frenna V, Santos L, Ohana E, Bailey C, Wattiez A. Laparoscopic management of ureteral endometriosis: our experience. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2007;14(2):169–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kondo W, Monica MT, Pinto EP, Ribeiro R, Ribeiro MFC, Trippia CR, Trippia CH. Deep infiltrating endometriosis: imaging features and laparoscopic correlation. J Endometr Pelvic Pain Disord. 2011;3(4):197–212.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mettler L, Gaikwad V, Riebe B, Schollmeyer T. Bladder endometriosis: possibility of treatment by laparoscopy. JSLS. 2008;12:162–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pérez-Utrilla Pérez M, Aguilera Bazán A, Alonso Dorrego JM, Hernández A, de Francisco MG, Martín Hernández M, et al. Urinary tract endometriosis: clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects. Urology. 2009;73:47–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hansen KA, Chalpe A, Eyster KM. Management of endometriosis-associated pain. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2010;53:439–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Seracchioli R, Mabrouk M, Montanari G, Manuzzi L, Concetti S, Venturoli S. Conservative laparoscopic management of urinary tract endometriosis (UTE): surgical outcome and long-term follow-up. Fertil Steril. 2010;94(3):856–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Munhoz JL, Jimenez JS, Tejerizo A, Lopez G, Duarte J, Sanchez Bustos F. Rectosigmoid deep infiltrating endometriosis and ureteral involvement with loss of renal function. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;162:121–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Al-Khawaja M, Tan PH, MacLennan GT, Lopez- Beltran A, Montironi R, Cheng L. Ureteral endometriosis: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 7 cases. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:954–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Antonelli A, Simeone C, Zani D, Sacconi T, Minini G, Canossi E, et al. Clinical aspects and surgical treatment of urinary tract endometriosis: our experience in 31 cases. Eur Urol. 2006;49:1093–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Donnez J, Nisolle M, Squifflet J. Ureteral endometriosis: a complication of rectovaginal endometriotic (adenomyotic) nodules. Fertil Steril. 2002;77:32–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Seracchioli R, Mabrouk M, Manuzzi L, Guerrini M, Villa G, Montanari G, et al. Importance of retroperitoneal ureteric evaluation in cases of deep infiltrating endometriosis. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2008;15:435–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Darai E, Thomassin I, Barranger E, Detchev R, Cortez A, Houry S, Bazot M. Feasibility and clinical outcome of laparoscopic colorectal resection for endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:394–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Remorgida V, Ferrero S, Fulcheri E, Ragni N, Martin DC. Bowel endometriosis: presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2007;62:461–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Vercellini P, Pietropaolo G, De GO, Pasin R, Chiodini A, Crosignani PG. Treatment of symptomatic rectovaginal endometriosis with an estrogen-progestogen combination versus low-dose norethindrone acetate. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:1375–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Chapron C, Chopin N, Borghese B, Foulot H, Dousset B, Vacher-Lavenu MC, et al. Deeply infiltrating endometriosis: pathogenetic implications of the anatomical distribution. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:1839–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Seaman HE, Ballard KD, Wright JT, de Vries CS. Endometriosis and its coexistence with irritable bowel syndrome and pelvic inflammatory disease: findings from a national case-control study--part 2. BJOG. 2008;115:1392–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Marana R, Paielli F, Muzii L, Dell’Acqua S, Mancuso S. GnRH analogs versus expectant management in minimal-mild endometriosis-associated infertility. Acta Eur Fertil. 1994;25:37–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Telimaa S. Danazol and medroxyprogesterone acetate inefficacious in the treatment of infertility in endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 1988;50:872–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jatan AK, Solomon MJ, Young J, Cooper M, Pathma-Nathan N. Laparoscopic management of rectal endometriosis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006;49:169–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Garry R. The effectiveness of laparoscopic excision of endometriosis. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2004;16:299–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jacobson TZ, Duffy JM, Barlow D, Koninckx PR, Garry R. Laparoscopic surgery for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4): CD001300. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001300.pub2. PMID: 19821276.
  101. 101.
    Mereu L, Ruffo G, Landi S, Barbieri F, Zaccoletti R, Fiaccavento A, et al. Laparoscopic treatment of deep endometriosis with segmental colorectal resection: short-term morbidity. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2007;14:463–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kavallaris A, Kohler C, Kuhne-Heid R, Schneider A. Histopathological extent of rectal invasion by rectovaginal endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:1323–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Armengol-Debeir L, Savoye G, Leroi AM, Gourcerol G, Savoye-Collet C, Tuech JJ, et al. Pathophysiological approach to bowel dysfunction after segmental colorectal resection for deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum: a preliminary study. Hum Reprod. 2011;26(9):2330–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Roman H, Loisel C, Resch B, Tuech JJ, Hochain P, Leroi AM, et al. Delayed functional outcomes associated with surgical management of deep rectovaginal endometriosis with rectal involvement: giving patients an informed choice. Hum Reprod. 2010;25(4):890–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Remorgida V, Ragni N, Ferrero S, Anserini P, Torelli P, Fulcheri E. The involvement of the interstitial Cajal cells and the enteric nervous system in bowel endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:264–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Abrão MS, Podgaec S, Dias JA Jr, Averbach M, Silva LF, Marino de Carvalho F. Endometriosis lesions that compromise the rectum deeper than the inner muscularis layer have more than 40% of the circumference of the rectum affected by the disease. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2008;15:280–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Pereira RMA, Zanatta A, Pretty CDL, de Paula FJF, Motta ELA, Serafini PC. Should the gynecologist perform laparoscopic bowel resection to treat endometriosis? Results over 7 years in 168 patients. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2009;16:472–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Van den Broeck U, Meuleman C, Tomassetti C, D’Hoore A, Wolthuis A, Van Cleynenbreugel B, et al. Effect of laparoscopic surgery for moderate and severe endometriosis on depression, relationship satisfaction and sexual functioning: comparison of patients 54 with and without bowel resection. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:2389–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Meuleman C, Tomassetti C, D’Hoore A, Van Cleynenbreugel B, Penninckx F, Vergote I, et al. Surgical treatment of deeply infiltrating endometriosis with colorectal involvement. Hum Reprod Update. 2011;17(3):311–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Chopin N, Vieira M, Borghese B, Foulot H, Dousset B, Coste J, et al. Operative management of deeply infiltrating endometriosis: results on pelvic pain symptoms according to a surgical classification. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2005;12:106–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Vignali M, Bianchi S, Candiani M, Spadaccini G, Oggioni G, Busacca M. Surgical treatment of deep endometriosis and risk of recurrence. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2005;12:508–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fingerhut A, Hay JM, Elhadad A, Lacaine F, Flamant Y. Supraperitoneal colorectal anastomosis: hand-sewn versus circular staples - a controlled clinical trial. French associations for surgical research. Surgery. 1995;118:479–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Park JS, Choi GS, Kim SH, et al. Multicenter analysis of risk factors for anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic rectal cancer excision: the Korean laparoscopic colorectal surgery study group. Ann Surg. 2013;257:665–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ruffo G, Scopelliti F, Scioscia M, Ceccaroni M, Mainardi P, Minelli L. Laparoscopic colorectal resection for deep infiltrating endometriosis: analysis of 436 cases. Surg Endosc. 2010;24(1):63–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Marcoux S, Maheux R, Bérubé S. Laparoscopic surgery in infertile women with minimal or mild endometriosis. Canadian collaborative group on endometriosis. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:217–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Meuleman C, D’Hoore A, Van Cleynenbreugel B, Beks N, D’Hooghe T. Outcome after multidisciplinary CO2 laser excision of deep infiltrating colorectal endometriosis. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18:282–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    D’Hooghe T, Hummelshoj L. Multi-disciplinary centres/networks of excellence for endometriosis management and research: a proposal. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:2743–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mateus Moreira Santos Rosin
    • 1
  • Mauricio Simões Abrão
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of São Paulo Medical SchoolSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations