Edwards SAPIEN XT Valve Implantation in the Pulmonary Position
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There are currently two commercially available valves in the United States for use in the pulmonic position, the Melody valve (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN) and the Edwards SAPIEN XT valve (Edwards Lifesciences LLC, Irvine, CA). The initial use of the SAPIEN was as a percutaneous substitute to surgical valve replacement in the aortic position; however, it has emerged as an alternative to the Melody valve in the pulmonic position and has been used successfully in the right ventricular (RV) to pulmonary artery (PA) conduits since 2005. In March 2016, the SAPIEN XT (second generation of the Edwards SAPIEN transcatheter heart valve) (Figs. 27.1, 27.2, and 27.3) gained the approval of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in dysfunctional RV to PA conduits.