Angiography: Radiation Exposure and Standard Projections



The large amount of collective effective dose is related to diagnostic and interventional catheterization. Many factors contribute to a relatively higher level of exposure in pediatric patients. These factors include age, body size, distance between hands and body and X-ray generator, configuration of the X-ray equipment, number of cases per day, and length of study. Both patients and working staff are at a potential risk to radiation. In particular children are at higher risk after exposure to medical radiation. In fact, for any given dose, children are three to six times more sensitive to the induction of cancer as they have more rapidly dividing cells and longer life expectancy than adults. Also, for a given procedure, dose is larger in a small infant than in an adult, and organs are closer resulting in more radiation dose.

Supplementary material

Video 1

Rotational angiography requires particular attention at everything as collision is very easy (MP4 59340 kb)

Video 2

Modern equipment allows to work with 3D images superposed to actual angiography (MP4 16732 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pediatric Cardiology DepartmentHospital Universitario La PazMadridSpain

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