Deconstruction of Racism
There has always been a struggle of resistance against racism and race-based social injustice. This chapter discusses in depth the deconstruction of racism through activism. It reviews major concepts presented in the book (social construction, oppression, institutional web, intersectionality, privilege, and scaffolding) and examines activism in relation to these major concepts: The chapter describes and analyzes in depth two contemporary grassroots activist movements that illustrate these major concepts and uses these examples to deconstruct the elements of the scaffolding (with emphasis on the poles: powerlessness, violence, exploitation, cultural imperialism, and marginalization) which supports the ongoing operation of racism in the USA. The chapter reviews styles and models of activism and explains the synergy of activist movements throughout the history of the United States. Finally, the chapter considers the relevance of future activist resistance to institutional racism.
KeywordsIdentification of racism concepts Black lives matter Standing rock Anti-racism models Types of activist movements
- About Us—The Movement for Black Lives. (2015). The Movement for Black Lives. Retrieved July 1, 2017, from https://policy.m4bl.org/about/.
- Ani, M. (2004). To be Afrikan: Toward the healing, rebirth and reconstruction of Afrikan civilization: Maat/Maafa/Sankofa. In J. Kamara & T. Van Der Meer (Eds.), State of the race: Creating our 21st century: Where do we go from here? (pp. 137–166). Boston: Diaspora Press.Google Scholar
- Belkin Martinez, D. (2015). Racial justice: Our historical moment. In Invited panelist, presented at the NASW-Massachusetts chapter Martin Luther King Forum on Racial Justice. Wheelock College: Boston, MA.Google Scholar
- Black Lives Matter Stands in Solidarity with Water Protectors at Standing Rock. (2017). Black Lives Matter. Retrieved July 8, 2017, from http://blacklivesmatter.com/solidarity-with-standing-rock.
- Bradley Hagerty, B. (2017). A closer look at black liberation theology. NPR.org. Retrieved July 3, 2017, from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=88552254&ft=1&f=1001.
- Chisom, R., & Washington, M. (1997). Undoing racism: A philosophy of international social change. New Orleans: People’s Institute Press.Google Scholar
- Cone, J. (1990). A black theology of liberation. Orbis, 1990, 56–57.Google Scholar
- Craig, J. (1964, June 8). Wesleyan baccalaureate is delivered by Dr. King. Hartford Courant, Hartford, Connecticut, p. 4.Google Scholar
- Du Bois, W. E. B. (1903). The souls of black folks. New York: Bantam Classic.Google Scholar
- Dyson, M. E. (2017). Tears we cannot stop: A sermon to white America. New York: St. Martin Press.Google Scholar
- Energy Transfer Partners. (2017). Transporting Crude From North Dakota to Multiple Major U.S. Markets in a More Direct, Cost-effective, Safer and More Environmentally Responsible Manner Than Either Rail or Truck. Retrieved July 6, 2017, from http://ir.energytransfer.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=106094&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=2278014.
- Fanon, F. (1963). The wretched of the earth. New York, NY: Grove Press.Google Scholar
- Fanon, F. (1967). Black skin, white masks (C. L. Markmann trans.) [Peau Noir, Masques Blancs]. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. (Original work published 1952).Google Scholar
- Franklin, J. H., & Moss, A. A. (2000). From slavery to freedom: A history of African Americans (8th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum.Google Scholar
- Freire, P. (1974). Education for critical consciousness. New York, NY: Continuum.Google Scholar
- Fresh Air. (2008, March 31). Black Liberation Theology, in its founder’s words. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89236116NPR.
- Giddings, P. (1984). When and where I enter: The impact of black women on race and sex in America. New York: W. Morrow.Google Scholar
- Gnanadass, E. (2014). Learning to teach about race: The racialized experience of a South Asian. American feminist educator. Adult Learning. Retrieved from www.questia.com/read/1G1-376071314/learning-to-teach-about-race-the-racialized-experience.
- Hamilton-Mason, J. (2007). Using the color of fear as a racial identity catalyst. In V. Lewis & H. Vasquez (Eds.), The color of fear sourcebook: A toolkit for educators and practitioners. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.Google Scholar
- Harjo, M. (2017). We should be worried the republicans are making it difficult to protest. Independent. Retrieved July 6, 2017, from http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/trump-republicans-sean-spicer-paid-protesters-illegal-be-worried-a7602406.html.
- Klarman, M. J. (2007). Brown v. Board of Education and the civil rights movement. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Mandela, N. (1995). Long walk to freedom: The autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Boston: Back Bay Books/Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
- Martín-Baró, I. (1994). Towards a liberation psychology. In A. Aron & S. Corne (Eds.), Writings for a liberation psychology: Ignacio Martín-Baró (pp. 17–32). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Martín-Baró, I. (1996). Writings for a liberation psychology. (S. Corne & A. Aron, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1974).Google Scholar
- McIntosh, P. (2004). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. In P. Rothenberg (Ed.), Race, class, and gender in the United States (6th ed., pp. 188–192). New, York: Worth Publishers.Google Scholar
- Miller, J., & Garran, A. M. (2008). The web of institutional racism. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 7(1), 33–67.Google Scholar
- Norris, T., Vine, P., & Hoeffel, E. (2012, Issued). The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010. Washington, DC: United States Census.Google Scholar
- Omi, M., & Winant, H. (2004). Racial formations. In P. Rothenberg (Ed.), Race, class, and gender in the United States (6th ed., pp. 12–21). New York: Worth Publishers.Google Scholar
- Ontario Anti-Racism Secretariat. (2015). Stand framing and learning anti-racism (2015). University of Calgary. Retrieved June 15, 2017, from http://www.ucalgary.ca/cared/antiracismdefined.
- Parham, T. A. (2002). Counseling persons of African descent: Raising the bar of practitioner competence. Washington, DC: Sage.Google Scholar
- Reid-Merritt, P. (2010). Righteous self-determination: The black social work movement in America. Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.Google Scholar
- Rothenberg, P. S. (2001). Race, class and gender in the United States (5th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.Google Scholar
- Rothenberg, P. S. (2004). Race, class and gender in the United States (6th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.Google Scholar
- Stewart, M. (1879). Meditations from the Pen of Mrs. Maria W. Stewart (widow of the late James W. Stewart.) now matron of the Freedmen’s Hospital, and presented in 1832 to the First African Baptist Church and Society of Boston, MA. Washington, DC: W. Lloyd Garrison and Knapp.Google Scholar
- Swigonski, M. E. (1999). Challenging privilege through Africentric social work practice. In P. L. Ewalt, E. M. Freeman, A. E. Fortune, D. L. Poole, & S. L. Wilkin (Eds.), Multicultural issues in social work: Practice and research (pp. 50–61). Washington, DC: NASW Press.Google Scholar
- Warren, A. (2015). Scholar leads talk on ‘black lives matter’ movement|Cornell Chronicle. News.cornell.edu. Retrieved July 6, 2017, from http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2015/04/scholar-leads-talk-black-lives-matter-movement.
- What Does #Black Lives Matter Mean? (2017). About the Black Lives Matter Network. Retrieved from: www.blacklivesmatter.com/about
- Yuhas, A. (2015). Activist pulls down confederate flag in front of South Carolina statehouse. The Guardian. Retrieved July 1, 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/jun/27/woman-removes-confederate-flag-south-carolina-statehouse.S