Advertisement

Discrimination

  • Robbie W. C. Tourse
  • Johnnie Hamilton-Mason
  • Nancy J. Wewiorski
Chapter

Abstract

Discrimination is an important element in the system of institutionalized racism in the United States of America. When individuals and groups view others as different, racially or otherwise, their feelings and behaviors incorporate the biases they extract from societal cues. This chapter discusses discrimination with a particular focus on racial discrimination. It presents a relational model that explains a process whereby the filtering of thoughts and emotions based on societal cues serve as the impetus to actions. When these actions are negative, that is discrimination. This chapter focuses on explicating the negative portion of the model—the process that leads to acts of discrimination. A discussion of the Trayvon Martin case (previously presented and discussed in more detail in Chap.  1) is used to illuminate the model. The chapter also discusses the multifaceted and complex ways in which discrimination becomes an intrinsic aspect of the lives of all Americans. Several discriminatory acts are presented that can stand alone, but that work together within the American system: domination, marginalization, power, prejudice, privilege, stereotyping, and subordination.

Keywords

Discrimination Racial discrimination Societal cues Relational model Personal construction Domination Subordination Privilege Stereotypes Power Marginalization Trayvon martin 

References

  1. Allport, G. W. (1981). The nature of prejudice (25th ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  2. Bell, L. A. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. A. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 3–15). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483. (1954).Google Scholar
  4. Cohn, J. & Young, J. (2017, March 2017). House Republicans unveil bill to repeal Obamacare. Politics. The Huffington Post, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  5. Feagin, J. R. (1989). Racial and ethnic relations (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Hatamiya, L. (1994). Righting a wrong. Japanese Americans and the passage of the Civil Liberties Act of 1988. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Jones, B. J., Tilden, M., & Gaines-Stoner, K. (2008). The Indian Child Welfare Act handbook: A legal guide to the custody and adoption of Native American children (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: American Bar Association.Google Scholar
  8. Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity. (2015). Understanding implicit bias. The Ohio State University. Retrieved from http://kirwaninstitute.osu.edu/
  9. Lee, C. (2013). Making race salient: Trayvon Martin and implicit bias in a not yet post-racial society (pp. 2013–2097). Washington, DC: GWU Legal Studies Research.Google Scholar
  10. Luhman, R. (2002). Race and ethnicity in the United Sates: Our differences and roots. New York, NY: Harcourt College Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Marden, C. F., Meyer, G., & Engel, M. H. (1992). Minorities in American Society (6th ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  12. Marger, M. N. (2015). Race and ethnic relations: American and global perspective (10th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Leaning.Google Scholar
  13. McIntosh, P. (2008). White privilege and male privilege. In M. McGoldrick & K. V. Hardy (Eds,), Re-Visioning family therapy: Race, culture, and gender in clinical practice (2nd ed., pp. 238–240). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Miller, J. G. (1976). Toward a new psychology of women. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  15. Miller, M. B. (2016, July 20). Police violence is genesis of violent reaction [editorial]. The Bay State Banner.Google Scholar
  16. Payne, M. (2005). Modern social work theory (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books, Inc..Google Scholar
  17. Paynter, R., Hautaniemi, S., & Muller, N. (1994). The landscapes of W. E. B. DuBois boyhood homesite: An agenda for an archaeology of the color line. In S. Gregory & R. Sanjek (Eds.), Race (pp. 285–318). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Pinderhughes, E. (1989). Understanding race, ethnicity, and power. New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  19. Pinderhughes, E. (2017). Conceptualization of how power operates in human functioning. In E. Pinderhughes, V. Jackson, & P. A. Romney (Eds.), Understanding power: An imperative for human services (pp. 1–23). Washington, DC: NASW Press.Google Scholar
  20. Queralt, M. (1996). The social environment and human behavior: A diversity perspective. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  21. Robbins, S. P., Chatterjee, P., & Canda, E. R. (2012). Contemporary human behavior theory (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  22. Sethi, R. C. (2004). Smells like racism. In P. S. Rothenberg (Ed.), Race, class, & gender in the United States: An integrated study (6th ed., pp. 143–154). New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  23. Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., & Holder, A. M. B. (2008). Racial microagressions in the life experience of black Americans. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(3), 329–336.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.39.3.329 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sue, D. W., Rasheed, M. N., & Rasheed, J. M. (2016). Multicultural social work practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..Google Scholar
  25. Swigonski, M. E. (1999). Challenging privilege through Africentric social work practice. In P. L. Ewalt, E. M. Freeman, A. E. Fortune, D. L. Poole, & S. L. Wilkin (Eds.), Multicultural issues in social work: Practice and research (pp. 50–61). Washington, DC: NASW Press.Google Scholar
  26. Temple-Raston, D. (2002). A death in Texas: A story of race, murder, and a small town’s struggle for redemption. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.Google Scholar
  27. Tourse, R. W. C. (1995). Relational model. Devised for teaching purposes.Google Scholar
  28. Tourse, R. W. C. (2016). Understanding cultural sway: An essential component for competent practice. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 86(2), 84–100.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00377317.2016.1151751 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Turner, J. H., Singleton, R., Jr., & Musick, D. (1990). Oppression: A socio-history of black-white relations in America. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  30. Walls, N. E., Griffin, R., Arnold-Renicker, H., Burson, M., Johnston, C., Moorman, N., et al. (2009, Summer). Mapping graduate social work student learning journeys about heterosexual privilege. Journal of Social Work Education, 45(2), 289–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wijeyesinghe, C. L., Griffin, P., & Love, B. (1997). Racism curriculum design. In M. Adams, L. A. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 82–104). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robbie W. C. Tourse
    • 1
  • Johnnie Hamilton-Mason
    • 2
  • Nancy J. Wewiorski
    • 3
  1. 1.Boston College School of Social WorkChestnut HillUSA
  2. 2.Simmons College School of Social WorkBostonUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Department of Veterans AffairsBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations