Violence of Mind, Body, and Spirit: Spiritual and Religious Responses Triggered by Sexual Violence During the Rwandan Genocide
In this chapter, Breann Fallon explores the critical issue of genocidal wartime rape from a religious studies perspective. Focusing on the 1994 civil war in Rwanda, she discusses the impact that rape during conflict can have on survivors’ personal faith and relationship with their religious communities. Drawing on first-hand accounts from survivors of sexual violence during this conflict, she discerns the immediate and long-term impacts such violence has had on the faith of survivors. She notes that many survivors experience a loss, or “injury” to their faith, while, for others, their ordeal serves to affirm and strengthen their faith. Moreover, for some of these women, whose trauma led to an affirmation of faith, this played a key role in their long-term recovery and rehabilitation. As such, this chapter will not only highlight the impact of genocidal sexual violence on these women’s sense of faith, but will also suggest that faith should be a key consideration in the recovery and rehabilitation process.
- Allen, Beverly. 1996. Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Améry, Jean. 1980. At the Mind’s Limits: Contemplations by a Survivor on Auschwitz and Its Realities. Trans. Sidney Rosenfeld and Stella P. Rosenfeld. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
- de Brouwer, Anne-Marie, and Sandra Ka Hon Chu. 2009. The Men Who Killed Me: Rwandan Survivors of Sexual Violence. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre.Google Scholar
- Drumbl, Mark A. 2012. ‘She Makes Me Ashamed to Be a Woman’: The Genocide Conviction of Pauline Nyiramasuhuko. Michigan Journal of International Law 34 (3): 559–603.Google Scholar
- Gingerich, Tara, and Jennifer Leaning. 2004. The Use of Rape as a Weapon of War in the Conflict in Darfur, Sudan. Boston: Francois-Xavier Ganoud Centre for Health and Human Rights. Relief Web. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/B119C9EFB7DCAA2DC1256F5F004FBEA9-hu-sud-31oct.pdf. Accessed 4 July 2017.
- Herman, Judith L. 2001. Trauma and Recovery: The Aftermath of Violence – From Domestic Abuse to Political Terror. London: Pandora.Google Scholar
- Human Right Watch. 1996. Shattered Lives: Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and Its Aftermath. https://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/1996/Rwanda.htm. Accessed 28 February 2017.
- Melvern, Linda. 2004. Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide. London: Verso.Google Scholar
- Morris, Meghan Brenna. 2016. Achieving Justice and Rights Through Social Development: Suggestions from Rwandan Women Survivors of Rape During Genocide. International Consortium for Social Development 38 (12): 38–52.Google Scholar
- Mukamana, Donatilla, and Anthony Collins. 2006. Rape Survivors of the Rwandan Genocide. International Journal of Critical Psychology 17: 140–166.Google Scholar
- Postmus, Judy L., ed. 2013. Sexual Violence and Abuse: An Encyclopedia of Prevention, Impacts, and Recovery. Vol. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
- Prunier, Gérard. 1995. The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide. London: Hurst & Company.Google Scholar
- Rinaldo, R. 2004. Rights-Rwanda: Women Survivors of the Rwandan Genocide Face a Grim Reality. Inter Press Service. http://ipsnews.net/interna.asp?idnews=23198. Accessed 28 February 2017.
- Rittner, Carol, and John K. Roth. 2012. Rape: Weapon of War and Genocide. Minnesota: Paragon House.Google Scholar
- Shanks, Leslie, and Michael J. Schull. 2000. Becoming Abject: Rape as a Weapon of War. Canadian Medical Association Journal 163 (9): 1152–1156.Google Scholar
- Twagilimana, Aimable. 2015. Historical Dictionary of Rwanda. 2nd ed. London: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
- Uwimana, Liliane. 2010. Effects of Rape on Rwandan Women Genocide Survivors: A Case Study of Association des Veuves du Génocide Agahozo (AVEGA). Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic.Google Scholar
- Ward, Jeanne, and Mendy Marsh. 2006. Sexual Violence Against Women and Girls in War and Its Aftermath: Realities, Responses, and Required Resources. Brussels: UNFPA.Google Scholar