Prostate Gland Pathology
A pathologic report for prostate biopsy specimens (core or transurethral prostate resection) should include the following information: histologic type of cancer; Gleason primary and secondary pattern and total score; total number of cores; number of involved cores; percentage of prostatic tissue involved by tumor (especially for needle biopsies, either in each core or total linear mm of carcinoma/total linear mm of each core tissue); presence of perineural, angiolymphatic, and periprostatic fat invasion and seminal vesicle invasion; presence of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) (if no carcinoma is found, the number of cores involved and pattern of high-grade PIN should be reported); and therapy-related changes.
A pathologic report for prostatectomy specimens should include the following information: structures included in specimen [prostate (complete or not), seminal vesicles, vas deferens, bladder neck]; weight; size in three dimensions; histologic type and location of tumor (if any); Gleason pattern(s) and score; percentage of prostate involved by tumor (need not give exact tumor volume but an indication of minute vs. voluminous); presence of perineural invasion; presence of angiolymphatic invasion; presence of extraprostatic tissue invasion; presence of high-grade PIN; margin status; lymph nodes (number of involved lymph nodes, number of sampled lymph nodes; extranodal tumor extension is not related to survival) and diameter of largest metastasis; acute or chronic inflammation (which often doesn’t correlate with clinical prostatitis); and presence of granulomatous prostatitis (which may elevate PSA and produce suspicious feeling gland).
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Amin MB (ed) (2010) Diagnostic pathology. Genitourinary. AMIRSYS, Salt Lake CityGoogle Scholar
- Bostwick DG, Chen L (eds) (2014) Urologic surgical pathology. MOSBY Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Chen M, Rifkin M, Vo T et al (1996) Does color Doppler increase the ability to identify prostate cancer? In: Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting of the Association of University Radiologists. Birmingham, Alabama, p 65Google Scholar
- Cooperberg M, Prest J, Shinohara K, Caroll P (2013) Neoplasms of the prostate gland. In: McAninch J, Lue T (eds) Smith and Tanagho’s general urology, 18th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 350–379Google Scholar
- Epstein J (2016) Pathology of prostatic neoplasia. In: Wein R, Kavoussi L, Partin A, Peters C (eds) Campbell-Walsh urology, 11th edn. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 2593–2600Google Scholar
- Epstein JI, Netto GJ (2015) Biopsy interpretation of the prostate, 5th edn. Wolters Kluwer Health, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Fine SW, Humphrey PA (2013) Modern prostate needle biopsy interpretation. Short course # 22, syllabus. United States & Canadian Academy of PathologyGoogle Scholar
- Hanks GE (1988) External-beam radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer: patterns of care studies in the United States. NCI Monogr 7:75–84Google Scholar
- Magi-Galluzzi C, Evans AJ, Delahunt B et al (2011) International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) consensus conference on handling and staging of radical prostatectomy specimens. Working group 3: extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion and locally advanced disease. Mod Pathol 24(1):26–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Briers E et al (2017) Prostate cancer. In: European Association of Urology Guidelines. European Association of Urology. Available via https://uroweb.org/guideline/renal-cell-carcinoma. Accessed 17 Apr 2017
- National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) (2017) Prostate Cancer, Version 2. 2016 & 2.2017. Available via https://www.nccn.org/professionals/prostate. Accessed 20 April 2017
- NCCN Clinical practice guidelines in Oncology-Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2018 (2017) Available viahttps://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate.pdf. Accessed February 2018Google Scholar
- Scardino RT (1988) Τhe appearance of stage A prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathologic examination. In: Τhird international symposium on transrectal ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer, Chicago, pp 64–66Google Scholar
- Tabar et al (2013) Prostate and breast: brother and sister organs 3D book series, vol II. Tabar Foundation, Sweden Google Scholar