“Thyroglobulin Storage, Processing and Degradation for Thyroid Hormone Liberation”

  • Klaudia BrixEmail author
  • Maria Qatato
  • Joanna Szumska
  • Vaishnavi Venugopalan
  • Maren Rehders


The tasks of the thyroid gland comprise (1) thyroid hormone (TH) generation via synthesis of the prohormone thyroglobulin (Tg), (2) import and organification of iodine resulting in the generation of preformed TH bound to Tg, (3) Tg storage in covalently cross-linked form in the extracellular follicle lumen, (4) TH demand-driven solubilization of Tg from its storage forms, (5) proteolytic processing of Tg for TH liberation by extra- and intracellular means, (6) complete degradation of Tg upon its re-internalization, and (7) TH release into the bloodstream. Therefore, this chapter focuses on thyroid cell biology and describes how classical thyroid hormones are generated, liberated, and released from thyroid follicles.


Cathepsins Covalent cross-linkage Endocytosis Extracellular thyroglobulin processing Intracellular thyroglobulin degradation Lysosomes Proteases Protein processing Thyroglobulin Trafficking 



Angio-follicular unit


Congenital hyperthyroidism


Central nervous system


Cathepsin gene




Dual oxidase


Endoplasmic reticulum


ER-associated degradation


Free T4


Iodotyrosine deiodinase


Mannose 6-phosphate




Mannose 6-phosphate receptor


Sodium-iodide symporter


Protein disulfide isomerase


Rough endoplasmic reticulum


Reverse T3


3,3′-Diiodothyronine and 3,5-diiodothyronine




3,5,3′,5′-Tetraiodothyronine, thyroxine






trans-Golgi network


Thyroid hormone


Thyroid peroxidase


Thyroid-stimulating hormone


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaudia Brix
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Qatato
    • 1
  • Joanna Szumska
    • 1
  • Vaishnavi Venugopalan
    • 1
  • Maren Rehders
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Life Sciences and ChemistryJacobs University BremenBremenGermany

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