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Hypothyroidism

  • Cristiane J. Gomes-Lima
  • Kenneth D. Burman
Chapter

Abstract

Overt primary hypothyroidism is characterized by a state of decreased circulating thyroid hormones associated with low FT4/TT4 (free and total thyroxine) and elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (thyrotropin). In this chapter, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology of overt hypothyroidism. The clinical spectrum is presented according to the manifestations of hypothyroxinemia at each body system. The basis for laboratory diagnosis is discussed, as well as some pitfalls on the interpretation of TSH assays. Finally, we discuss peculiarities of the diagnosis of overt hypothyroidism in special situations, such as pregnancy, depression, and in the elderly. Treatment of overt hypothyroidism is discussed in a separate chapter.

Keywords

Overt hypothyroidism TSH FT4 Hypothyroxinemia Thyroid hormones 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MedStar Washington Hospital CenterMedStar Health Research InstituteHyattsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal MedicineMedStar Washington Hospital CenterHyattsvilleUSA

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