Scope of the Problems

  • Roger P. Smith


Pain, whether acute, chronic, or recurring, is a major source of morbidity and disability, costing uncounted billions of dollars annually in both direct and indirect costs. The diagnosis and treatment of pain have taken on increased importance in recent years and are now identified as a “vital sign” by the Joint Commission on Accreditation Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). The treatment of both acute and chronic pain with opiate pain relievers has led to a national crisis over opiate abuse and dependence. For women, pelvic pain is by far the most common type of pain complaint for which treatment is sought. The cyclic pain of dysmenorrhea has been estimated to affect up to 80% of women at some point in their life, with 50% or more experiencing it on a regular basis. Without access to effective treatments, this scope of incapacity should be intolerable to any developed society.


Prevalence Impact Cost Adolescent Severity Symptoms Disability Economic Pain Heavy menstruation 


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Additional Resources

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger P. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Florida Atlantic UniversityBoca RatonUSA

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