The Illusion of Participation: Tokenism in REDD+ Pilot Projects in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  • Raymond Achu Samndong
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Natural Resource Management book series (PSNRM)


Samndong interrogates the participation of local people in REDD+ in Equateur province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The chapter finds that information during the free prior and informed consent (FPIC) process was insufficient for local people to decide whether to join the REDD+ project. Additionally, local people had no say in the REDD+ projects implemented in local communities. Local participation in the REDD+ project was limited to supply of labour and attending meetings for financial rewards. Furthermore, local participation often excluded women. Samndong concludes that community participation in REDD+ in DRC is ‘tokenism’ and that strong community participation would be difficult if local power relations that perpetuate social inequalities in the DRC are not addressed.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond Achu Samndong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of International Environment and Development StudiesNorwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway

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