Breath Sounds pp 267-287 | Cite as

Cough Sounds

Chapter

Abstract

Cough is an important protective reflex that is essential to protect the airways yet can also signify disease as a symptom of airway disease. It is the most common symptom that results in new medical consultations at least in regions where data is available. Both children and adults can cough for a myriad of reasons. This ranges from cough associated with simple viral infections to cough secondary to serious airway or lung disorders. Consequently evaluating causes of cough can be quite challenging.

The mechanism of cough involves the central and peripheral neural systems, muscular and airway mechanisms. The sound of cough is influenced by various physiological factors such as age and sex and by pathological factors such as muscle weakness, airway obstruction and excessive mucus production. This chapter briefly reviews factors influencing cough sounds and recorders. As cough is a cardinal symptom of airway diseases and many respiratory illnesses, a description of typical cough quality in various respiratory conditions is provided. We also briefly discuss the availability and developments in software, apps and cough measurement devices that unfold a new exciting field of study and research in our era of advancing technology.

References

  1. 1.
    Chang AB, Robertson CF, Van Asperen PP (2012) A multicenter study on chronic cough in children: burden and etiologies based on a standardized management pathway. Chest 142:943–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schmit KM et al (2013) Evaluating cough assessment tools: a systematic review. Chest 144(6):1819–1826PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Karakoc F et al (2002) Foreign body aspiration: what is the outcome? Pediatr Pulmonol 34(1):30–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    British Thoracic Society; Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (2003) British guideline on the management of asthma. Thorax 58(Suppl 1):i1Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morice AH, C Members (2004) The diagnosis and management of chronic cough. Eur Respir J 24(3):481–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang AB, Asher MI (2001) A review of cough in children. J Asthma 38(4):299–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Irwin RS et al (2014) Overview of the management of cough: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. Chest 146(4):885–889PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Irwin RS (2006) Introduction to the diagnosis and management of cough: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 129(1_Suppl):25S–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Britt H et al (2009) General practice activity in Australia 1999–00 to 2008–09: 10 year data tables. General practice series no. 26. Cat. no. GEP 26. AIHW, Canberra, ACTGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marchant JM et al (2008) What is the burden of chronic cough for families? Chest 134(2):303–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Faniran AO, Peat JK, Woolcock AJ (1998) Persistent cough: is it asthma? Arch Dis Child 79(5):411–414PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bush A (2002) Paediatric problems of cough. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 15(3):309–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McCool FD (2006) Global physiology and pathophysiology of cough: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 129(1_suppl):48S–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bennett WD, Zeman KL (1994) Effect of enhanced supramaximal flows on cough clearance. J Appl Physiol 77(4):1577–1583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oldenburg FA et al (1979) Effects of postural drainage, exercise and cough on mucus clearance in chronic bronchitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 120:739–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chang A.B (1999) State of the Art: Cough, cough receptors, and asthma in children. Pediatr Pulmonol 28(1):59–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Widdicombe J, Fontana G (2006) Cough: what’s in a name? Eur Respir J 28(1):10–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Canning BJ (2006) Anatomy and neurophysiology of the cough reflex. Chest 129(1 Suppl):33S–47SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Haji A, Kimura S, Ohi Y (2013) A model of the central regulatory system for cough reflex. Biol Pharm Bull 36(4):501–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    De LF et al (2016) TRP functions in the broncho-pulmonary system. Semin Immunopathol 38(3):321–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Canning BJ et al (2014) Anatomy and neurophysiology of cough: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. Chest 146(6):1633–1648PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mazzone SB (2004) Sensory regulation of the cough reflex. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 17(6):361–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Widdicombe J (2001) The race to explore the pathway to cough: who won the silver medal? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164(5):729–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Canning BJ et al (2004) Identification of the tracheal and laryngeal afferent neurones mediating cough in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. J Physiol 557(Pt 2):543–558PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lee MG et al (2004) Ionotropic and metabotropic receptor mediated airway sensory nerve activation. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 17(6):355–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Spina D, Page CP (2013) Regulating cough through modulation of sensory nerve function in the airways. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 26:486–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bonham AC, Sekizawa S, Joad JP (2004) Plasticity of central mechanisms for cough. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 17:453–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shannon R et al (2004) Production of reflex cough by brainstem respiratory networks. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 17(6):369–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chang AB et al (2007) Calcitonin gene-related peptide relates to cough sensitivity in children with chronic cough. Eur Respir J 30(1):66–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hara J et al (2008) Effect of pressure stress applied to the airway on cough reflex sensitivity in guinea pigs. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177:585–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Korpas J et al (1987) The origin of cough sounds. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 23(Suppl 10):47s–50sPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hashimoto Y et al (2003) Influence of the rheological properties of airway mucus on cough sound generation. Respirology 8(1):45–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chang AB, Widdicombe JG (2006) Cough throughout life: children, adults and the senile. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 20(4):371–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chang AB et al (2011) Do gender and atopy influence cough outcome measurements in children? Chest 140:324–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chang AB, Redding GJ, Everard ML (2008) Chronic wet cough: protracted bronchitis, chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis. Pediatr Pulmonol 43:519–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Widdicombe J, Eccles R, Fontana G (2006) Supramedullary influences on cough. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 152(3):320–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    El-Hennawi DM, Bou-Halawa AS, Zaher SR (2006) Management of clinically diagnosed subacute rhinosinusitis in children under the age of two years: a randomized, controlled study. J Laryngol Otol 120(10):845–848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kelsall A et al (2009) Sex differences and predictors of objective cough frequency in chronic cough. Thorax 64(5):393–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fujimura M et al (1996) Female gender as a determinant of cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin. Eur Respir J 9:1624–1626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chang AB et al (1997) Airway hyperresponsiveness and cough-receptor sensitivity in children with recurrent cough. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 155(6):1935–1939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Varechova S et al (2008) Role of gender and pubertal stage on cough sensitivity in childhood and adolescence. J Physiol Pharmacol 59(Suppl 6):719–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Miller MR et al (2005) ATS/ERS Taskforce series: standardisation of spirometry. Eur Respir J 26(2):319–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Murata A et al (1998) Discrimination of productive and non-productive cough by sound analysis. Intern Med 37(9):732–735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jalaludin BB, O'Toole BI, Leeder SR (2004) Acute effects of urban ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for asthma in a cohort of Australian children. Environ Res 95(1):32–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Spengler JD et al (2004) Housing characteristics and children’s respiratory health in the Russian Federation. Am J Public Health 94(4):657–662PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Robertson CF et al (1991) Prevalence of asthma in Melbourne schoolchildren: changes over 26 years. BMJ 302:1116–1118PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Soto-Quiros ME, Soto-Martinez M, Hanson LA (2002) Epidemiological studies of the very high prevalence of asthma and related symptoms among school children in Costa Rica from 1989 to 1998. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13(5):342–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Coren ME et al (1998) The value of ultrafast computed tomography in the investigation of pediatric chest disease. Pediatr Pulmonol 26(6):389–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    De Jongste JC, Shields MD (2003) Chronic cough in children. Thorax 58(11):998–1003PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wubbel C, Faro A (2003) Chronic cough in children. Pediatr Case Rev 3(2):95–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chang AB et al (2003) Non-CF bronchiectasis-clinical and HRCT evaluation. Pediatr Pulmonol 35(6):477–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chang AB et al (1998) Subjective scoring of cough in children: parent-completed vs child-completed diary cards vs an objective method. Eur Respir J 11(2):462–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hsu JY et al (1994) Coughing frequency in patients with persistent cough: assessment using a 24 hour ambulatory recorder. Eur Respir J 7:1246–1253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Foster WM (2003) Mucus secretion and cough. In: Chung KF, Widdicombe JG, Boushey HA (eds) Cough: causes, mechanisms and therapy. Blackwell Science, London, pp 207–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nunn JF (1993) Functional anatomy of the respiratory tract. In: Applied respiratory physiology. Butterworths, London, pp 18–21Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nunn JF (1993) Non-elastic resistance to gas flow. In: Applied respiratory physiology. Butterworths, London, pp 61–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Korpas J, Widdicombe JG, Vrabec M (1993) Influence of simulated mucus on cough sounds in cats. Respir Med 87(1):49–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chang AB (2003) Causes, assessment and measurement of cough in children. In: Widdicombe GJ, Chung KF, Boushey HA (eds) Cough: causes, mechanisms and therapy. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 58–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chang AB et al (2005) Cough quality in children: a comparison of subjective vs. bronchoscopic findings. Respir Res 6:3PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Carden KA et al (2005) Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia in children and adults*: an in-depth review. Chest 127(3):984–1005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Boogaard R et al (2005) Tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia in children*: incidence and patient characteristics. Chest 128(5):3391–3397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Masters IB et al (2008) QUantified tracheobronchomalacia disorders and their clinical profiles in children. Chest 133(2):461–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Szeinberg A et al (1988) Cough capacity in patients with muscular dystrophy. Chest 94(6):1232–1235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schramm CM (2000) Current concepts of respiratory complications of neuromuscular disease in children. Curr Opin Pediatr 12(3):203–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Park JH et al (2010) How respiratory muscle strength correlates with cough capacity in patients with respiratory muscle weakness. Yonsei Med J 51(3):392–397PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cane RS, McKenzie SA (2001) Parents' interpretations of children’s respiratory symptoms on video. Arch Dis Child 84(1):31–34PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cane RS, Ranganathan SC, McKenzie SA (2000) What do parents of wheezy children understand by “wheeze”? Arch Dis Child 82(4):327–332PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hay AD et al (2004) The inter-observer agreement of examining pre-school children with acute cough: a nested study. BMC Fam Pract 5(1):4PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Marchant JM, Masters IB, Chang AB (2004) Defining paediatric chronic bronchitis. Respirology 9(Suppl):A61Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Shields MD, Thavagnanam S (2013) The difficult coughing child: prolonged acute cough in children. Cough 9(1):11PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Farzan S (1990) Clinical methods: the history, physical, and laboratory examinations, 3rd edn. Butterworths, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shields MD et al (2008) British Thoracic Society guidelines recommendations for the assessment and management of cough in children. Thorax 63(Suppl 3):iii1–iii15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cornia PB et al (2010) Does this coughing adolescent or adult patient have pertussis? JAMA 304(8):890–896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ferronato AE (2013) Respiratory viral infections in infants with clinically suspected pertussis. J Pediatr 89(6):549–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Harnden A, Grant C, Harrison T (2006) Whooping cough in school aged children with persistent cough: a prospective cohort study in primary care. BMJ 333:174PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Barlow RS et al (2014) Vaccinated children and adolescents with pertussis infections experience reduced illness severity and duration, Oregon, 2010–2012. Clin Infect Dis 58(11):1523–1529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tozzi AE et al (2003) Clinical presentation of pertussis in unvaccinated and vaccinated children in the first six years of life. Pediatrics 112(5):1069–1075PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Schaad UB, Rossi E (1982) Infantile chlamydial pneumonia—a review based on 115 cases. Eur J Pediatr 138(2):105–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chang AB (2005) Cough: are children really different to adults? Cough 1(1):7PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Vertigan AE et al (2015) Somatic cough syndrome (previously referred to as psychogenic cough) and tic cough (previously referred to as habit cough) in adults and children: chest guideline and expert panel report. Chest 148(1):24–31PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Spinou A, Birring SS (2014) An update on measurement and monitoring of cough: what are the important study endpoints? J Thorac Dis 6:S728–S734PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Martinek J et al (2013) Cough sound analysis. Acta Med Martiniana 13:15–20Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Morice AH et al (2007) ERS guidelines on the assessment of cough. Eur Respir J 29(6):1256–1276PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Amoh J, Odame K (2013) Technologies for developing ambulatory cough monitoring devices. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 41(6):457–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Barry SJ et al (2006) The automatic recognition and counting of cough. Cough (London, England) 2:8–8Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Vizel E et al (2010) Validation of an ambulatory cough detection and counting application using voluntary cough under different conditions. Cough (London, England) 6:3Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Coyle MA et al (2005) Evaluation of an ambulatory system for the quantification of cough frequency in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cough (London, England) 1:3Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ryan NM, Birring SS, Gibson PG (2012) Gabapentin for refractory chronic cough: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 380(9853):1583–1589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yousaf N et al (2010) Long-term low-dose erythromycin in patients with unexplained chronic cough: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. Thorax 65(12):1107–1110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Barton A et al (2012) Data reduction for cough studies using distribution of audio frequency content. Cough (London, England) 8:12Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Birring SS et al (2008) The Leicester cough monitor: preliminary validation of an automated cough detection system in chronic cough. Eur Respir J 31(5):1013–1018PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Yousaf N et al (2013) Cough frequency in health and disease. Eur Respir J 41(1):241–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kulnik ST et al (2016) Cough frequency monitors: can they discriminate patient from environmental coughs? J Thorac Dis 8(11):3152–3159PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Parker D et al (2013) Detecting paroxysmal coughing from pertussis cases using voice recognition technology. PLoS One 8(12):e82971PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gilchrist FJ, Carroll WD (2016) Assessing chronic cough in children. Paediatr Child Health 26(6):273–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Pramono RXA, Imtiaz SA, Rodriguez-Villegas E (2016) A cough-based algorithm for automatic diagnosis of pertussis. PLoS One 11(9):e0162128PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Amrulloh Y et al (2015) Cough sound analysis for pneumonia and asthma classification in pediatric population. In: Proceedings of the 2015 6th international conference on intelligent systems, modelling and simulation. IEEE Computer Society, pp 127–131Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Abeyratne UR et al (2013) Cough sound analysis can rapidly diagnose childhood pneumonia. Ann Biomed Eng 41(11):2448–2462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Amrulloh YA, Abeyratne UR, Swarnkar V, Triasih R, Setyati A (2015) Automatic cough segmentation from non-contact sound recordings in pediatric wards. Biomed Signal Process Control 21:126–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Swarnkar V et al (2013) Automatic identification of wet and dry cough in pediatric patients with respiratory diseases. Ann Biomed Eng 41(5):1016–1028PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hiew YH et al (2002) DSP algorithm for cough identification and counting. In: IEEE international conference on acoustics speech and signal processing. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Al-khassaweneh M, Mustafa SB, Abu-Ekteish F (2012) Asthma attack monitoring and diagnosis: a proposed system. In: 2012 IEEE-EMBS conference on biomedical engineering and sciences. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kosasih K, Abeyratne UR, Swarnkar V (2012) High frequency analysis of cough sounds in pediatric patients with respiratory diseases. In: 2012 annual international conference of the IEEE engineering in medicine and biology society. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ranjani S, Santhiya V, Jayapreetha A (2012) A real time cough monitor for classification of various pulmonary diseases. In: 2012 third international conference on emerging applications of information technology. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Liu M, Huang M-C (2015) Asthma Pattern Identification via Continuous Diaphragm Motion Monitoring. IEEE Tran Multi-Scale Comput Syst 1(2):76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kosasih K et al (2015) Wavelet augmented cough analysis for rapid childhood pneumonia diagnosis. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 62(4):1185–1194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Chandran V, Ning D, Sridharan S (2004) Speaker identification using higher order spectral phase features and their effectiveness vis–a–vis Mel-Cepstral features. In: Biometric authentication. Springer Nature, New York, NY, pp 614–622Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kuang Chua C (2009) Cardiac health diagnosis using higher order spectra and support vector machine. Open Med Inform J 3(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Chua KC et al (2009) Higher order spectra based support vector machine for arrhythmia classification. In: IFMBE proceedings. Springer Nature, New York, NY, pp 231–234Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mookiah MRK et al (2015) Application of higher-order spectra for automated grading of diabetic maculopathy. Med Biol Eng Comput 53(12):1319–1331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    EtehadTavakol M et al (2013) Breast cancer detection from thermal images using bispectral invariant features. Int J Therm Sci 69:21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Chandran V, Elgar S (1991) Shape discrimination using invariants defined from higher-order spectra. In [Proceedings] ICASSP 91: 1991 international conference on acoustics, speech, and signal processing. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Chandran V, Elgar S (1994) A general procedure for the derivation of principal domains of higher-order spectra. IEEE Trans Signal Process 42(1):229–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Chandran V, Elgar S, Pezeshki C (1993) Bispectral and trispectral characterization of transition to chaos in the duffing oscillator. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 03(03):551–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Chua KC et al (2009) Analysis of epileptic EEG signals using higher order spectra. J Med Eng Technol 33(1):42–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chandran V (2012) Time-varying bispectral analysis of visually evoked multi-channel EEG. EURASIP J Adv Signal Process 2012(1):140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Chandran V (2012) Time-varying bispectral analysis of auditory evoked multi-channel scalp EEG. In: 2012 11th international conference on information science, signal processing and their applications (ISSPA). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Chang AB (2006) Guidelines for evaluating chronic cough in pediatrics: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 129:260S–283SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Chang AB et al (2017) Management of children with chronic wet cough and protracted bacterial bronchitis: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. Chest 151(4):884–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saikiran Gopalakaje
    • 1
  • Tony Sahama
    • 2
  • Anne B. Chang
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Lady Cilento Children’s HospitalSouth BrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Queensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Child Health DivisionMenzies School of Health ResearchDarwinAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Queensland Children’s Medical Research Institute, Queensland Children’s Health ServiceQueensland University of TechnologySouth BrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations