Advertisement

Pathophysiology of Pain

  • Elodie Martin
Chapter
Part of the Perspectives in Nursing Management and Care for Older Adults book series (PNMCOA)

Abstract

While acute pain is an alarm signal involving unpleasant sensations and vegetative and behavioural reactions, chronic pain presents with long-lasting consequences. The underlying mechanisms of pain chronicization after an acute pain episode involve both peripheral and central nervous system sensitization. In this chapter, the pathophysiology of acute and chronic pain will be described with a specific focus on elderly patients. Ageing is accompanied by physiological changes, and acute and chronic pain are a major concern for older people. Knowledge of the clinical manifestations of pain processing changes in older people is essential in guaranteeing optimal pain management.

Keywords

Acute pain Chronic pain Neuropathic pain Peripheral sensitization Central sensitization Age-associated differences in pain Psychosocial aspects of pain 

References

  1. Abdulla A, Adams N, Bone M, Elliott AM, Gaffin J, Jones D, et al. Guidance on the management of pain in older people. Age Ageing. 2013;42(Suppl 1):i1–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Achterberg WP, Pieper MJ, van Dalen-Kok AH, de Waal MW, Husebo BS, Lautenbacher S, et al. Pain management in patients with dementia. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:1471–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albano WA, Zielinski CM, Organ CH. Is appendicitis in the aged really different? Geriatrics. 1975;30(1 Sz):81–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Almeida TF, Roizenblatt S, Tufik S. Afferent pain pathways: a neuroanatomical review. Brain Res. 2004;1000(1–2):40–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amenta F, Zaccheo D, Collier WL. Neurotransmitters, neuroreceptors and aging. Mech Ageing Dev. 1991;61(3):249–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersson HI, Ejlertsson G, Leden I, Rosenberg C. Chronic pain in a geographically defined general population: studies of differences in age, gender, social class, and pain localization. Clin J Pain. 1993;9(3):174–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arendt-Nielsen L, Nie H, Laursen MB, Laursen BS, Madeleine P, Simonsen OH, et al. Sensitization in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis. Pain. 2010;149(3):573–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Artigas F, Nutt DJ, Shelton R. Mechanism of action of antidepressants. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2002;36(Suppl 2):123–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Banerjee S, Poddar MK. Aging-induced changes in brain regional serotonin receptor binding: effect of Carnosine. Neuroscience. 2016;319:79–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barber R, Scheltens P, Gholkar A, Ballard C, McKeith I, Ince P, et al. White matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and normal aging. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999;67(1):66–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barili P, De Carolis G, Zaccheo D, Amenta F. Sensitivity to ageing of the limbic dopaminergic system: a review. Mech Ageing Dev. 1998;106(1–2):57–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Basbaum AI, Bautista DM, Scherrer G, Julius D. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of pain. Cell. 2009;139(2):267–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bathgate D, Snowden JS, Varma A, Blackshaw A, Neary D. Behaviour in frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Acta Neurol Scand. 2001;103(6):367–78.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Bautista DM, Jordt S-E, Nikai T, Tsuruda PR, Read AJ, Poblete J, et al. TRPA1 mediates the inflammatory actions of environmental irritants and proalgesic agents. Cell. 2006;124(6):1269–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bergman E, Johnson H, Zhang X, Hökfelt T, Ulfhake B. Neuropeptides and neurotrophin receptor mRNAs in primary sensory neurons of aged rats. J Comp Neurol. 1996;375(2):303–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bernard J-F, Villanueva L. Architecture fonctionnelle des systèmes nociceptifs (Chapitre 1). In: Bouhassira D, Calvino B, editors. Douleur: physiologie, physiopathologie et pharmacologie. Dion: Arnette; 2009.Google Scholar
  17. Binnekade TT, Van Kooten J, Lobbezoo F, Rhebergen D, Van der Wouden JC, Smalbrugge M, et al. Pain experience in dementia subtypes: a systematic review. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2017;14(5):471–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boerlage AA, van Dijk M, Stronks DL, de Wit R, van der Rijt CCD. Pain prevalence and characteristics in three Dutch residential homes. Eur J Pain. 2008;12(7):910–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Budai D, Fields HL. Endogenous opioid peptides acting at mu-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn contribute to midbrain modulation of spinal nociceptive neurons. J Neurophysiol. 1998;79(2):677–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Calvino B. Neural basis of pain. Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil. 2006;4(1):7–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Calvino B, Grilo RM. Central pain control. Joint Bone Spine. 2006;73(1):10–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caraceni A, Portenoy RK. An international survey of cancer pain characteristics and syndromes. Pain. 1999;82(3):263–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carlino E, Benedetti F, Rainero I, Asteggiano G, Cappa G, Tarenzi L, et al. Pain perception and tolerance in patients with frontotemporal dementia. Pain. 2010;151(3):783–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carr DB, Goudas LC. Acute pain. Lancet. 1999;353(9169):2051–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cherng CH, Ho ST, Kao SJ, Ger LP. The study of cancer pain and its correlates. Ma Zui Xue Za Zhi. 1991;29(3):653–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Chiou A-F, Lin H-Y, Huang H-Y. Disability and pain management methods of Taiwanese arthritic older patients. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(15):2206–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Clinch D, Banerjee AK, Ostick G. Absence of abdominal pain in elderly patients with peptic ulcer. Age Ageing. 1984;13(2):120–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Cole LJ, Farrell MJ, Duff EP, Barber JB, Egan GF, Gibson SJ. Pain sensitivity and fMRI pain-related brain activity in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain. 2006;129(Pt 11):2957–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Collerton J, Davies K, Jagger C, Kingston A, Bond J, Eccles MP, et al. Health and disease in 85 year olds: baseline findings from the Newcastle 85+ cohort study. BMJ. 2009;339:b4904.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Collins S, Sigtermans MJ, Dahan A, Zuurmond WWA, Perez RSGM. NMDA receptor antagonists for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Pain Med. 2010;11(11):1726–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Collis D, Waterfield J. The understanding of pain by older adults who consider themselves to have aged successfully. Musculoskeletal Care. 2015;13(1):19–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cook NR, Evans DA, Funkenstein HH, Scherr PA, Ostfeld AM, Taylor JO, et al. Correlates of headache in a population-based cohort of elderly. Arch Neurol. 1989;46(12):1338–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Danigo A, Magy L, Demiot C. TRPV1 dans les neuropathies douloureuses–des modèles animaux aux perspectives thérapeutiques. Med Sci (Paris). 2013;29(6–7):597–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Defrin R, Amanzio M, de Tommaso M, Dimova V, Filipovic S, Finn DP, et al. Experimental pain processing in individuals with cognitive impairment: current state of the science. Pain. 2015;156(8):1396–408.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Dickstein DL, Kabaso D, Rocher AB, Luebke JI, Wearne SL, Hof PR. Changes in the structural complexity of the aged brain. Aging Cell. 2007;6(3):275–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Doyle CA, Hunt SP. Substance P receptor (neurokinin-1)-expressing neurons in lamina I of the spinal cord encode for the intensity of noxious stimulation: a c-Fos study in rat. Neuroscience. 1999;89(1):17–28.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Drac H, Babiuch M, Wiśniewska W. Morphological and biochemical changes in peripheral nerves with aging. Neuropatol Pol. 1991;29(1–2):49–67.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Dubin AE, Patapoutian A. Nociceptors: the sensors of the pain pathway. J Clin Invest. 2010;120(11):3760–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ebrahimi Z, Wilhelmson K, Moore CD, Jakobsson A. Frail elders’ experiences with and perceptions of health. Qual Health Res. 2012;22(11):1513–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Edwards RR. Age-associated differences in pain perception and pain processing. In: Gibson SJ, Weiner DK, editors. Pain in older persons progress in pain research and management. Seattle: IASP Press; 2005. p. 45–65.Google Scholar
  41. Farrell MJ. Age-related changes in the structure and function of brain regions involved in pain processing. Pain Med. 2012;13(Suppl 2):S37–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Farrell MJ, Katz B, Helme RD. The impact of dementia on the pain experience. Pain. 1996;67(1):7–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Fields HL. Is there a facilitating component to central pain modulation? APS J. 1992;1(2):71–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Finnerup NB, Haroutounian S, Kamerman P, Baron R, Bennett DLH, Bouhassira D, et al. Neuropathic pain: an updated grading system for research and clinical practice. Pain. 2016;157(8):1599.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gagliese L, Farrell M. The neurobiology of aging, nociception, and pain: an integration of animal and human experimental evidence. In: Gibson SJ, Weiner DK, editors. Pain in older persons progress in pain research and management. Seattle: IASP Press; 2005. p. 25–44.Google Scholar
  46. Gagliese L, Melzack R. Age differences in the quality of chronic pain: a preliminary study. Pain Res Manag. 1997;2(3):157–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gagliese L, Melzack R. Age differences in the response to the formalin test in rats. Neurobiol Aging. 1999;20(6):699–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gangadharan V, Kuner R. Pain hypersensitivity mechanisms at a glance. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6(4):889–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gatchel RJ, Peng YB, Peters ML, Fuchs PN, Turk DC. The biopsychosocial approach to chronic pain: scientific advances and future directions. Psychol Bull. 2007;133(4):581–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gibson SJ. Age differences in psychosocial aspects of pain. In: Gibson SJ, Weiner DK, editors. Pain in older persons progress in pain research and management. Seattle: IASP Press; 2005. p. 87–107.Google Scholar
  51. Gibson SJ, Farrell M. A review of age differences in the neurophysiology of nociception and the perceptual experience of pain. Clin J Pain. 2004;20(4):227–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gibson SJ, Lussier D. Prevalence and relevance of pain in older persons. Pain Med. 2012;13(Suppl 2):S23–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gignac MAM, Davis AM, Hawker G, Wright JG, Mahomed N, Fortin PR, et al. ‘What do you expect? You’re just getting older’: a comparison of perceived osteoarthritis-related and aging-related health experiences in middle- and older-age adults. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;55(6):905–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Gilron I, Baron R, Jensen T. Neuropathic pain: principles of diagnosis and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015;90(4):532–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Grime J, Richardson JC, Ong BN. Perceptions of joint pain and feeling well in older people who reported being healthy: a qualitative study. Br J Gen Pract. 2010;60(577):597–603.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hamm RJ, Knisely JS. Environmentally induced analgesia: age-related decline in a neurally mediated, nonopioid system. Psychol Aging. 1986;1(3):195–201.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Hamm RJ, Knisely JS. Environmentally induced analgesia: an age-related decline in an endogenous opioid system. J Gerontol. 1985;40(3):268–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Heinricher MM, Tavares I, Leith JL, Lumb BM. Descending control of nociception: specificity, recruitment and plasticity. Brain Res Rev. 2009;60(1):214–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Helme RD, Gibson SJ. The epidemiology of pain in elderly people. Clin Geriatr Med. 2001;17(3):417–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Helme RD, McKernan S. Neurogenic flare responses following topical application of capsaicin in humans. Ann Neurol. 1985;18(4):505–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Hilton D, Iman N, Burke GJ, Moore A, O’Mara G, Signorini D, et al. Absence of abdominal pain in older persons with endoscopic ulcers: a prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(2):380–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Hukkanen M, Platts LAM, Corbett SA, Santavirta S, Polak JM, Konttinen YT. Reciprocal age-related changes in GAP-43/B-50, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in rat primary sensory neurones and their terminals in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and subintima of the knee synovium. Neurosci Res. 2002;42(4):251–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. IASP Task Force on Taxonomy. Classification of chronic pain: descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms. In: Merskey H, Bogduk N, editors. International association for the study of pain. 2nd ed. Seattle: IASP Press; 1994. p. 222.Google Scholar
  64. IASP Taxonomy Working Group. Classification of chronic pain, 2nd ed. (Revised). Seattle: IASP Press; 2011. [cited 2018 Jan 14]. Available from: https://www.iasp-pain.org/PublicationsNews/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=1673.
  65. Ji R-R, Kohno T, Moore KA, Woolf CJ. Central sensitization and LTP: do pain and memory share similar mechanisms? Trends Neurosci. 2003;26(12):696–705.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Kieffer BL, Gavériaux-Ruff C. Exploring the opioid system by gene knockout. Prog Neurobiol. 2002;66(5):285–306.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Klein T, Magerl W, Rolke R, Treede R-D. Human surrogate models of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2005;115(3):227–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Kosek E, Ordeberg G. Abnormalities of somatosensory perception in patients with painful osteoarthritis normalize following successful treatment. Eur J Pain. 2000;4(3):229–38.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Kwan KY, Allchorne AJ, Vollrath MA, Christensen AP, Zhang D-S, Woolf CJ, et al. TRPA1 contributes to cold, mechanical, and chemical nociception but is not essential for hair-cell transduction. Neuron. 2006;50(2):277–89.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Lankisch PG, Schirren CA, Kunze E. Undetected fatal acute pancreatitis: why is the disease so frequently overlooked? Am J Gastroenterol. 1991;86(3):322–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Larivière M, Goffaux P, Marchand S, Julien N. Changes in pain perception and descending inhibitory controls start at middle age in healthy adults. Clin J Pain. 2007;23(6):506–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Latremoliere A, Woolf CJ. Central sensitization: a generator of pain hypersensitivity by central neural plasticity. J Pain. 2009;10(9):895–926.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lautenbacher S, Rollman GB. Possible deficiencies of pain modulation in fibromyalgia. Clin J Pain. 1997;13(3):189–96.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Le Bars D, Adam F. Nociceptors and mediators in acute inflammatory pain. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2002;21(4):315–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Le Bars D, Villanueva L, Bouhassira D, Willer JC. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) in animals and in man. Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 1992;4:55–65.Google Scholar
  76. Lesniak A, Lipkowski AW. Opioid peptides in peripheral pain control. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2011;71(1):129–38.Google Scholar
  77. Li Y, Duckles SP. Effect of age on vascular content of calcitonin gene-related peptide and mesenteric vasodilator nerve activity in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993;236(3):373–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Lipton RB, Pfeffer D, Newman LC, Solomon S. Headaches in the elderly. J Pain Symptom Manag. 1993;8(2):87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Liston R, McLoughlin R, Clinch D. Acute pneumothorax: a comparison of elderly with younger patients. Age Ageing. 1994;23(5):393–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Loeser JD. Concepts of pain. In: Stanton-Hicks J, Boaz R, editors. Chronic low back pain. New York: Raven Press; 1982.Google Scholar
  81. Magnusson KR, Brim BL, Das SR. Selective vulnerabilities of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors during brain aging. Front Aging Neurosci. 2010;2:11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Mantyh PW, Rogers SD, Honore P, Allen BJ, Ghilardi JR, Li J, et al. Inhibition of hyperalgesia by ablation of lamina I spinal neurons expressing the substance P receptor. Science. 1997;278(5336):275–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. McCaffery M, Beebe A. Pain: clinical manual for nursing practice. St. Louis, Missouri: C.V. Mosby; 1989.Google Scholar
  84. Mehta SS, Siegler EL, Henderson CR, Reid MC. Acute pain management in hospitalized patients with cognitive impairment: a study of provider practices and treatment outcomes. Pain Med. 2010;11(10):1516–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Millan MJ. The induction of pain: an integrative review. Prog Neurobiol. 1999;57(1):1–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Miró J, Paredes S, Rull M, Queral R, Miralles R, Nieto R, et al. Pain in older adults: a prevalence study in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia. Eur J Pain. 2007;11(1):83–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mori E. Impact of subcortical ischemic lesions on behavior and cognition. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;977:141–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nieto-Rostro M, Sandhu G, Bauer CS, Jiruska P, Jefferys JGR, Dolphin AC. Altered expression of the voltagegated calcium channel subunit α2δ -1: a comparison between two experimental models of epilepsy and a sensory nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. Neuroscience. 2014;283:124–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Neumann S, Braz JM, Skinner K, Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Basbaum AI. Innocuous, not noxious, input activates PKCgamma interneurons of the spinal dorsal horn via myelinated afferent fibers. J Neurosci. 2008;28(32):7936–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ossipov MH, Morimura K, Porreca F. Descending pain modulation and chronification of pain. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2014;8(2):143–51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Parker J, Frank R, Beck N, Finan M, Walker S, Hewett JE, et al. Pain in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship to demographic, medical, and psychological factors. J Rheumatol. 1988;15(3):433–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Patel R, Dickenson AH. Mechanisms of the gabapentinoids and α 2 δ-1 calcium channel subunit in neuropathic pain. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2016;4(2):e00205.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pau AKH, Croucher R, Marcenes W. Prevalence estimates and associated factors for dental pain: a review. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2003;1(3):209–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Pereira LV, de Vasconcelos PP, Souza LAF, de Pereira Gilberto A, Nakatani AYK, Bachion MM. Prevalence and intensity of chronic pain and self-perceived health among elderly people: a population-based study. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2014;22(4):662–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Peters A, Rosene DL. In aging, is it gray or white? J Comp Neurol. 2003;462(2):139–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Petrenko AB, Yamakura T, Baba H, Shimoji K. The role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in pain: a review. Anesth Analg. 2003;97(4):1108–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Peyron R, Laurent B, García-Larrea L. Functional imaging of brain responses to pain. A review and meta-analysis (2000). Neurophysiol Clin. 2000;30(5):263–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pezet S. Neurotrophins and pain. Biol Aujourdhui. 2014;208(1):21–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pezet S, Malcangio M, Lever IJ, Perkinton MS, Thompson SWN, Williams RJ, et al. Noxious stimulation induces Trk receptor and downstream ERK phosphorylation in spinal dorsal horn. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;21(4):684–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pickering G. Age differences in clinical pain state. In: Gibson SJ, Weiner DK, editors. Pain in older persons progress in pain research and management. Seattle: IASP Press; 2005. p. 67–85.Google Scholar
  101. Pickering G, Pereira B, Dufour E, Soule S, Dubray C. Impaired modulation of pain in patients with postherpetic neuralgia. Pain Res Manag. 2014;19(1):e19–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pielsticker A, Haag G, Zaudig M, Lautenbacher S. Impairment of pain inhibition in chronic tension-type headache. Pain. 2005;118(1–2):215–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pieper MJC, van Dalen-Kok AH, Francke AL, van der Steen JT, Scherder EJA, Husebø BS, et al. Interventions targeting pain or behaviour in dementia: a systematic review. Ageing Res Rev. 2013;12(4):1042–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Piggott MA, Perry EK, Perry RH, Court JA. [3H]MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor complex, and its modulation in human frontal cortex during development and aging. Brain Res. 1992;588(2):277–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, et al. The physiological basis of pain modulation. 2nd ed. Sunderland (MA): Neuroscience; 2001.Google Scholar
  106. Raja SN. Peripheral neural mechanisms of nociception. In: Melzack R, Walls PD, editors. Textbook of pain. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1999. p. 11–45.Google Scholar
  107. Reichstadt J, Depp CA, Palinkas LA, Folsom DP, Jeste DV. Building blocks of successful aging: a focus group study of older adults’ perceived contributors to successful aging. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007;15(3):194–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rexed B. The cytoarchitectonic organization of the spinal cord in the cat. J Comp Neurol. 1952;96(3):414–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Riley JL, King CD, Wong F, Fillingim RB, Mauderli AP. Lack of Endogenous Modulation but Enhanced Decay of Prolonged Heat Pain in Older Adults. Pain. 2010;150(1):153–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rittger H, Rieber J, Breithardt OA, Dücker M, Schmidt M, Abbara S, et al. Influence of age on pain perception in acute myocardial ischemia: a possible cause for delayed treatment in elderly patients. Int J Cardiol. 2011;149(1):63–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rustøen T, Wahl AK, Hanestad BR, Lerdal A, Paul S, Miaskowski C. Age and the experience of chronic pain: differences in health and quality of life among younger, middle-aged, and older adults. Clin J Pain. 2005;21(6):513–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sandrini G, Rossi P, Milanov I, Serrao M, Cecchini AP, Nappi G. Abnormal modulatory influence of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls in migraine and chronic tension-type headache patients. Cephalalgia. 2006;26(7):782–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Scherder EJA. Pain in people with dementia – its relationship to neuropathology. In: Lautenbacher S, Gibson SJ, editors. Pain in dementia. Seattle: IASP Press; 2017. p. 71–84.Google Scholar
  114. Scherder EJA, Plooij B, Achterberg WP, Pieper M, Wiegersma M, Lobbezoo F, et al. Chronic pain in ‘probable’ vascular dementia: preliminary findings. Pain Med. 2015;16(3):442–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Scherder EJA, Sergeant JA, Swaab DF. Pain processing in dementia and its relation to neuropathology. Lancet Neurol. 2003;2(11):677–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Scherder E, Wolters E, Polman C, Sergeant J, Swaab D. Pain in Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis: its relation to the medial and lateral pain systems. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005;29(7):1047–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schmidt R, Willis W, editors. Nociceptive specific neurons. In: Encyclopedia of pain [internet]. Berlin: Springer; 2007 [cited 2018 Jan 14]. p. 1379. Available from: https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-540-29805-2_2770
  118. Shih Y-YI, Chiang Y-C, Chen J-C, Huang C-H, Chen Y-Y, Liu R-S, et al. Brain nociceptive imaging in rats using (18)f-fluorodeoxyglucose small-animal positron emission tomography. Neuroscience. 2008;155(4):1221–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Thomas E, Peat G, Harris L, Wilkie R, Croft PR. The prevalence of pain and pain interference in a general population of older adults: cross-sectional findings from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP). Pain. 2004;110(1–2):361–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Thomas T, Robinson C, Champion D, McKell M, Pell M. Prediction and assessment of the severity of post-operative pain and of satisfaction with management. Pain. 1998;75(2):177–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Timmons S, Kingston M, Hussain M, Kelly H, Liston R. Pulmonary embolism: differences in presentation between older and younger patients. Age Ageing. 2003;32(6):601–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Todd AJ. Anatomy of primary afferents and projection neurones in the rat spinal dorsal horn with particular emphasis on substance P and the neurokinin 1 receptor. Exp Physiol. 2002;87(2):245–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Tresch DD. Signs and symptoms of heart failure in elderly patients. Am J Geriatr Cardiol. 1996;5(1):27–33.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Turner-Stokes L, Sykes N, Silber E. Long-term neurological conditions: management at the interface between neurology, rehabilitation and palliative care. Clin Med. 2008;8(2):186–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Varrone A, Pappatà S, Caracò C, Soricelli A, Milan G, Quarantelli M, et al. Voxel-based comparison of rCBF SPET images in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease highlights the involvement of different cortical networks. Eur J Nucl Med. 2002;29(11):1447–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Verdú E, Ceballos D, Vilches JJ, Navarro X. Influence of aging on peripheral nerve function and regeneration. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2000;5(4):191–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wilson C, Imrie CW. Deaths from acute pancreatitis: why do we miss the diagnosis so frequently? Int J Pancreatol. 1988;3(4):273–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Woolf CJ, Salter MW. Neuronal plasticity: increasing the gain in pain. Science. 2000;288(5472):1765–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Wright D, Barrow S, Fisher AD, Horsley SD, Jayson MI. Influence of physical, psychological and behavioural factors on consultations for back pain. Br J Rheumatol. 1995;34(2):156–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. Yong H-H, Bell R, Workman B, Gibson SJ. Psychometric properties of the pain attitudes questionnaire (revised) in adult patients with chronic pain. Pain. 2003;104(3):673–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Young Y, Frick KD, Phelan EA. Can successful aging and chronic illness coexist in the same individual? A multidimensional concept of successful aging. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2009;10(2):87–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Zhou H-Y, Chen S-R, Pan H-L. Targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors for treatment of neuropathic pain. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2011;4(3):379–88.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zimmermann M. Pathobiology of neuropathic pain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;429(1–3):23–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Pharmacology Center, Clinical Research Center Inserm 1405University Hospital, Medical FacultyClermont-Ferrand cedexFrance

Personalised recommendations