International Sanctions as a Primary Institution of International Society
This chapter explores international sanctions as a practice for states to collectively punish the violation of important international norms through the institutionalized authority of international organizations. More than instrumental foreign policy tools, sanction are ways for states to reaffirm core constitutive principles of international society, stigmatize transgressors and deter future norm violations. The chapter discusses the development of international sanctions since the Concert of Europe and traces how sanctioning as an international practice has shaped the institutions of great power management and war. In so doing, it shows how ‘secondary’ institutions, primarily in this case the United Nations, through institutionalized practices such as international sanctions, can change the understanding or shape the transformation of certain primary institutions.
- Baldwin, David. 1985. Economic Statecraft. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Barry, Buzan. 2014. An Introduction to the English School of International Relations: The Societal Approach. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
- Berger, Andrea. 2016. From Paper to Practice: The Significance of New UN Sanctions on North Korea. Arms Control Today. Available at: https://www.armscontrol.org/ACT/2016_05/Features/From-Paper-to-Practice-The-Significance-of-New-UN-Sanctions-on-North-Korea. Accessed Apr 2017.
- Bull, Hedley. 1966. The Grotian Conception of International Society. In Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Politics, ed. Herbert Butterfield and Martin Wight, 51–73. London: George Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
- Cortright, David, and George A. Lopez. 2000. The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
- ———. 2002. Smart Sanctions: Targeting Economic Statecraft. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
- Cortright, David, George A. Lopez, and Linda Gerber-Stellingwerf. 2007. Sanctions. In The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations, ed. Thomas G. Weiss and Sam Daws, 349–367. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Henig, Ruth, ed. 1973. The League of Nations. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.Google Scholar
- Hinsley, F.H. 1963. Power and the Pursuit of Peace: Theory and Practice in the History of the Relations Between States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Holbraad, Carsten. 1970. The Concert of Europe: A Study in German and British International Theory, 1815–1914. London: Longman.Google Scholar
- Hufbauer, Gary Clyde, Jeffrey J. Schott, and Kimberly Ann Elliot. 1990. Economic Sanctions Reconsidered. Washington, DC: Institution for International Economics.Google Scholar
- Manning, C.A.W. 1962. The Nature of International Society. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- ———. 1972. The Legal Framework in a World of Change. In The Aberystwyth Papers: International Politics, 1919–1969, ed. Brian Porter, 301–335. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Northedge, F.S. 1976. The International Political System. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
- Security Council Resolutions. 2017. United Nations Security Council [online]. Available at: http://www.un.org/en/sc/documents/resolutions/. Accessed Apr 2017.
- Solingen, Etel, ed. 2012. Sanctions, Statecraft, and Nuclear Proliferation. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Targeted Sanctions Consortium Database. 2014. The Graduate Institute Geneva, [online]. Available at: http://graduateinstitute.ch/home/research/centresandprogrammes/international-governance/research-projects/UN_Targeted_Sanctions/targeted-sanctions-consortium-da.html. Accessed Mar and Apr 2017.
- Tourinho, Marcos, Oliver Stuenkel, and Sarah Brockmeier. 2016. “Responsibility While Protecting”: Reforming R2P Implementation. Global Security 30 (1): 134–150.Google Scholar
- von Sponeck, H.C. 2006. A Different Kind of War: The UN Sanctions Regime in Iraq. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
- Wallensteen, Peter, and Carina Staibano. 2005. International Sanctions: Between Words and Wars in the Global System. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Westervelt, Eric. 2011. NATO’s Intervention in Libya: A New Model? NPR, 12 September 2011, [online]. Available at: http://www.npr.org/2011/09/12/140292920/natos-intervention-in-libya-a-new-model. Accessed Apr 2017.
- Woolf, Leonard. 1916. International Government: Two Reports. London: George Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar